Have fashionable hair lengths ever been reversed from their current styles?

Have fashionable hair lengths ever been reversed from their current styles?

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Has there ever been a time or a culture in which fashion/tradition strongly favored men with long hair AND women with short hair during the same period? There are plenty of instances of both having long hair or both having short hair, and obviously modern Western fashions tend toward men with short hair and women with long, but I can't think of a situation where those two were reversed…

Can anyone think of one?

According to the book "Generations," there are recurring periods of this sort, when American men and women seem to blur (if not switch) gender roles. The last time was when the Baby Boomers, a so-called "Idealist" generation were adolescents in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

This was a time when men wore their hair long. At the same time, women dressed and acted more like men by wearing pants in large numbers for the first time in history, and cutting their hair shorter than usual.

The word "moustache" is French, and is derived from the Italian moustacio (14th century), dialectal mostaccio (16th century), from Medieval Latin moustaccium (eighth century), Medieval Greek μουστάκιον (moustakion), attested in the ninth century, which ultimately originates as a diminutive of Hellenistic Greek μύσταξ (mustax, mustak-), meaning "upper lip" or "facial hair", [2] probably derived from Hellenistic Greek μύλλον (mullon), "lip". [3] [4]

Research done on this subject has noticed that the prevalence of moustaches and facial hair in general rise and fall according to the saturation of the marriage market. [5] Thus, the nuances of the density and thickness of the moustache or beard may help to convey androgen levels or age. [6]

The earliest document of the usage of moustaches (without the beard) can be traced to Iron Age Celts. According to Diodorus Siculus, a Greek Historian: [7]

The Gauls are tall of body with rippling muscles and white of skin and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so for they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing colour which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater and they pull it back from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard but others let it grow a little and the nobles shave their cheeks but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth.

Moustaches would not go away during the Middle Ages. One prominent example of the moustache in early medieval art is the Sutton Hoo helmet, an elaborately-decorated helmet sporting a faceplate depicting the style on its upper lip. Later on, Welsh leaders, such as Edward of Wales, would also often wear only a moustache. [8]

Moustache popularity in the west peaked in the 1880s and 1890s coinciding with a popularity in the military virtues of the day. [6]

Various cultures have developed different associations with moustaches. For example, in many 20th-century Arab countries, moustaches are associated with power, beards are associated with Islamic traditionalism, and clean-shaven or lack of facial hair are associated with more liberal, secular tendencies. [9] In Islam, trimming the moustache is considered to be a sunnah and mustahabb, that is, a way of life that is recommended, especially among Sunni Muslims. The moustache is also a religious symbol for the male followers of the Yarsan religion. [10]

Shaving with stone razors was technologically possible from as far back as the Neolithic times. A moustache is depicted on a statue of the 4th Dynasty Egyptian prince Rahotep (c. 2550 BC). Another ancient portrait showing a shaved man with a moustache is an ancient Iranian (Scythian) horseman from 300 BC.

In ancient China, facial hair and the hair on the head were traditionally left untouched because of Confucian influences. [11]

The moustache forms its own stage in the development of facial hair in adolescent males. [12]

As with most human biological processes, this specific order may vary among some individuals depending on one's genetic heritage or environment. [13] [14]

Moustaches can be tended through shaving the hair of the chin and cheeks, preventing it from becoming a full beard. A variety of tools have been developed for the care of moustaches, including safety razors, moustache wax, moustache nets, moustache brushes, moustache combs and moustache scissors.

In the Middle East, there is a growing trend for moustache transplants, which involves undergoing a procedure called follicular unit extraction in order to attain fuller, and more impressive facial hair. [15]

The longest moustache measures 4.29 m (14 ft) and belongs to Ram Singh Chauhan (India). It was measured on the set of the Italian TV show "Lo Show dei Record" in Rome, Italy, on 4 March 2010. [16]

The World Beard and Moustache Championships 2007 had six sub-categories for moustaches: [17]

  • Dalí – narrow, long points bent or curved steeply upward areas past the corner of the mouth must be shaved. Artificial styling aids needed. Named after Salvador Dalí.
  • English moustache – narrow, beginning at the middle of the upper lip the whiskers are very long and pulled to the side, slightly curled the ends are pointed slightly upward areas past the corner of the mouth usually shaved. Artificial styling may be needed.
  • Freestyle – All moustaches that do not match other classes. The hairs are allowed to start growing from up to a maximum of 1.5 cm beyond the end of the upper lip. Aids are allowed.
  • Hungarian – Big and bushy, beginning from the middle of the upper lip and pulled to the side. The hairs are allowed to start growing from up to a maximum of 1.5 cm beyond the end of the upper lip.
  • Imperial – whiskers growing from both the upper lip and cheeks, curled upward (distinct from the royale, or impériale)
  • Natural – Moustache may be styled without aids.

Other types of moustache include:

  • Chevron – covering the area between the nose and the upper lip, out to the edges of the upper lip but no further. Popular in 1970s and 1980s American and British culture. Worn by Ron Jeremy, Richard Petty, Freddie Mercury, Bruce Forsyth and Tom Selleck. – long, downward pointing ends, generally beyond the chin. – bushy, with small upward pointing ends. Worn by baseball pitcher Rollie Fingers. – Often confused with the Handlebar Moustache, the horseshoe was possibly popularised by modern cowboys and consists of a full moustache with vertical extensions from the corners of the lips down to the jawline and resembling an upside-down horseshoe. Also known as "biker moustache". Worn by Hulk Hogan and Bill Kelliher. Recently re-popularized by Gardner Minshew and Joe Exotic.
  • Pancho Villa – similar to the Fu Manchu but thicker also known as a "droopy moustache". Also similar to the Horseshoe. A Pancho Villa is much longer and bushier than the moustache normally worn by the historical Pancho Villa. – narrow, straight and thin as if drawn on by a pencil, closely clipped, outlining the upper lip, with a wide shaven gap between the nose and moustache. Popular in the 1940s, and particularly associated with Clark Gable. More recently, it has been recognised as the moustache of choice for the fictional character Gomez Addams in the 1990s series of films based on The Addams Family. Also known as a Mouth-brow, and worn by Vincent Price, John Waters, Little Richard, Sean Penn and Chris Cornell. – thick, but shaved except for about an inch (2.5 cm) in the centre worn by Adolf Hitler, Charlie Chaplin, Oliver Hardy, and Michael Jordan in his commercials for Hanes. – bushy, hanging down over the lips, often entirely covering the mouth. Worn by Mark Twain, David Crosby, Joseph Stalin, John Bolton, Wilford Brimley, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, Sam Elliott, Albert Einstein, Jamie Hyneman and Robert Johansson .

"Imperial " moustache style

"Freestyle" moustache style

Like many other fashion trends, the moustache is subject to shifting popularity through time. Though modern culture often associates moustaches with men of the Victorian Era, Susan Walton shows that at the start of the Victorian Era facial hair was "viewed with distaste" and that the moustache was considered the mark of an artist or revolutionary, both of which remained on the social fringe at the time. [18] This is supported by the fact that only one Member of Parliament sported facial hair from the years 1841-47. [18] However, by the 1860s, this had changed and moustaches became wildly popular, even among distinguished men, but by the end of the century, facial hair became passé once more. [18] Though one cannot be entirely sure as to the cause of such changes, Walton speculates that the rise of the facial hair trend was due largely in part to the impending war against Russia, and the belief that moustaches and beards projected a more 'manly' image, which was brought about by the so-called 'rebranding' of the British military and the rehabilitation of military virtues. [18] Moustaches became a defining trait of the British soldier, and until 1916, no enlisted soldier was permitted to shave his upper lip. [19] However, the next generation of men perceived facial hair, such as moustaches, to be an outdated emblem of masculinity and therefore there was a dramatic decline in the moustache trend and a clean-shaven face became the mark of a modern man. [18]

Marriage Edit

According to a study performed by Nigel Barber, results have shown a strong correlation between a good marriage market for women and an increased number of moustaches worn by the male population. [20] By comparing the number of males pictured in Illustrated London News sporting a moustache against the ratio of single women to single men, the similar trends in the two over the years would suggest that these two factors are correlated. [20] Barber suggests that this correlation may be due to the fact that men with moustaches are perceived to be more attractive, industrious, creative, masculine, dominant and mature by both men and women, [20] as supported by the research conducted by Hellström and Tekle. [21] Barber suggests that these perceived traits would influence a woman's choice of husband as they would suggest a high reproductive and biological qualities, and a capacity to invest in children, so when males must compete heavily for marriage they are more likely to grow a moustache in an attempt to project these qualities. [20] This theory is also supported by the correlation between beard fashion and women wearing long dresses, as shown by Robinson's study, [22] which then relates to the correlation between dress fashion and the marriage market, as shown in Barber's 1999 study. [23]

Age perception Edit

The moustache and other forms of facial hair are globally understood to be signs of the post-pubescent male [24] however, those with moustaches are perceived to be older than those who are clean-shaven of the same age. [24] This was determined by manipulating a photo of six male subjects, with varying levels of baldness, to have moustaches and beards and then asking undergraduate college students to rate both the photos of the men with facial hair and without facial hair in terms of social maturity, aggression, age, appeasement, and attractiveness. Regardless of how bald the subject was, the results found in relation to the perception of moustaches remained constant. Although males with facial hair were perceived, in general, to be older than the same subject pictured without facial hair, [25] the moustached subjects were also perceived to be far less socially mature. [24] The decreased perception of social maturity of the men with moustaches may partially be due to the increase in the perception of aggression in the moustachioed men, [24] as aggression is incompatible with social maturity. [24]

Workplace Edit

In a study performed by J. A. Reed and E. M. Blunk, persons in management positions were shown to positively perceive, and therefore be more likely to hire, men with facial hair. [26] Although men with beards over all scored better than men with only moustaches, the moustached men scored much higher than those men who were clean-shaven. [26] In this experiment, 228 persons, both male and female, who held management positions that made hiring decisions were shown ink sketches of six male job applicants. The men in these ink sketches ranged from clean-shaven, to moustachioed, to bearded. The men with facial hair were rated higher by the employers on aspects of masculinity, maturity, physical attractiveness, dominance, self-confidence, nonconformity, courage, industriousness, enthusiasm, intelligence, sincerity, and general competency. [26] The results were found to be fairly similar for both female and male employers, which Reed and Blunk suggest would imply that gender does not factor into one's perceptions of a moustache on a male applicant. [26] However, Blunk and Reed also stipulate that the meaning and acceptability of facial hair does change depending on the time period. However, the studies performed by Hellström & Tekle [21] and also the studies performed by Klapprott [27] would suggest that moustaches are not favourable to all professions as it has been shown that clean-shaven men are seen as more reliable in roles such as salesmen and professors. Other studies have suggested that acceptability of facial hair may vary depending on culture and location, as in a study conducted in Brazil, clean-shaven men were preferred by personnel managers over applicants who were bearded, goateed, or moustached. [28]

Cultures Edit

In Western culture, it has been shown that women dislike men who displayed a visible moustache or beard, but preferred men who had a visible hint of a beard such as stubble (often known as a five-o-clock shadow) over those who were clean-shaven. [29] This supports the idea that in Western culture, females prefer men who have the capability to cultivate facial hair, such as a moustache, but choose not to. However some researchers have suggested that it is possible that in ecologies in which physical aggressiveness is more adaptive than cooperation, bearded men might be preferred by women. [24] However, varying opinion on moustaches is not reserved to international cultural differences as even within the US, there have been discrepancies observed on female preference of male facial hair as Freedman's study suggested that women studying at the University of Chicago preferred men with facial hair because they perceived them to be more masculine, sophisticated and mature than clean-shaven men. [30] Similarly, a study performed by Kenny and Fletcher at Memphis State University suggested that men with facial hair such as moustaches and beards, were perceived as stronger and more masculine by female students. [31] However, the study performed by Feinman and Gill would suggest that this reaction to facial hair is not nationwide, as women studying in the state of Wyoming showed a marked preference for clean-shaven men over men with facial hair. [32] Some accredit this difference to the difference between region, rurality, and political and social conservatism between the various studies. [32] Thus it can be seen that even within the US, there are slight variations in the perceptions of moustaches.

Religions Edit

In addition to various cultures, the perception of the moustache is also altered by religion as some religions support the growth of a moustache or facial hair in general, whereas others tend to reject those with moustaches, while many churches remain somewhat ambivalent on the subject.

Amish Edit

While Amish men grow beards after marriage and never trim them, they eschew moustaches and continue shaving their upper lips. This is rooted in a rejection of the German military fashion of sporting moustaches, which was prevalent at the time of the Amish community's formation in Switzerland hence serving as a symbol of their commitment to pacifism. [33]

Mormon Edit

Though it is never explicitly stated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that all male members must be clean-shaven, within Mormon circles it is often considered "taboo" for men to have moustaches as the missionaries of the church are required to be clean-shaven as well as the honor code of Brigham Young University requiring students to have similar grooming standards. This has become somewhat of a social norm within the church itself. [34] This often leads those members who do choose to wear moustaches feel somewhat like they do not quite fit the norm, and yet in the studies shown done by Nielsen and White, these men reportedly do not mind this feeling and that is why they continue to grow their facial hair. [34]

Islam Edit

Even though facial grooming is not specifically mentioned within the Qur'an, numerous narrations of hadith (sayings of Muhammad) address personal hygiene, including facial hair maintenance. [35] In one such example, Muhammad advised that men must grow beards, and as to moustaches, cut the longer hairs as to not let them cover the upper lips (as this is the Fitra—the tradition of prophets). [36] Thus, growing a beard while keeping the moustache from covering the upper lip is a well-established tradition in many Muslim societies. [35]

Individuals Edit

The longest moustache measures 4.29 m (14 ft) and belongs to Ram Singh Chauhan of India. It was measured on the set of Lo Show dei Record in Rome, Italy, on 4 March 2010. [37]

In some cases, the moustache is so prominently identified with a single individual that it could identify him without any further identifying traits. For example, Kaiser Wilhelm II's moustache, grossly exaggerated, featured prominently in Triple Entente propaganda. Other notable individuals include: Adolf Hitler, Hulk Hogan, Freddie Mercury, Frank Zappa, Tom Selleck and Steve Harvey. In other cases, such as those of Charlie Chaplin and Groucho Marx, the moustache in question was artificial for most of the wearer's life.

Following a moped accident that left him with a scar on his upper lip, Paul McCartney decided to grow a moustache in order to hide it. The other members of the Beatles decided to do the same. They were first seen with this new look on the cover of their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. This marked the return of young men wearing the moustache in the 1960s. [38]

The Brief History of Fashion Trends

Pop culture is marked by ever-changing nostalgia for fashion trends from decades past, but all of these individual trends seem to coexist. Pieces of fashion from the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s continue on through the 2000’s, especially in the punk and rockabilly community. The Evolution of Fashion

Fashion has been and continues to be a reflection of society and current events. Fashion trends are influenced by popular figures in culture like celebrities, musicians and other high-profile individuals. Current fashion trends are often cyclical, taking cues from decades past and reworking them to fit within modern tastes. Clothing styles that were snubbed a decade ago are now enjoying a resurgence in popularity. Just like disco fashion inspired the punk movement, mainstream trends continue to coexist with underground fashion trends. And trend forecasting is now a profession high-profile designers, writers and photographers rely on these tastemakers to predict the next popular style, but this is no exact science. Even these trend forecasters, however, rely on some degree of instinct. And modern fashion trends are less widespread and universal than they were in decades past. Today, individuality has come into vogue.

A Visual History of Iconic Black Hairstyles

For centuries black communities around the world have created hairstyles that are uniquely their own. These hairstyles span all the way back to the ancient world and continue to weave their way through the social, political and cultural conversations surrounding black identity today.

Ancient Origins

From box braids to dreadlocks and afro shape-ups, many of the most iconic black hairstyles can be found in drawings, engravings and hieroglyphs from Ancient Egypt. When the painted sandstone bust of the Egyptian Queen Nefertiti was rediscovered in 1913, her regal beauty�ntuated by a towering hairstyle— was undeniable and she quickly became a global icon of feminine power.

Sarcophagus of Princess Kawit.

Often used in place of headdresses, wigs symbolized one’s rankਊnd were essential to royal and wealthy Egyptians, male and female alike. The 2050 B.C. sarcophagus of princess Kawit portrays the princess having her hair done by a servant during breakfast. Wigs such as this were often styled with braided pieces of human hair, wool, palm fibers and other materials set on a thick skullcap. Egyptian law prohibited slaves and servants from wearing wigs.

Nik Wheeler/Sygma/Getty Images

Twisted Locks

Dreadlocks have often been perceived as a hairstyle associated with 20th century Jamaican and Rastafarian culture, but according to Dr. Bert Ashe’s book, Twisted: My Dreadlock Chronicles, one of the earliest known recordings of the style has been found in the Hindu Vedic scriptures. In its Indian origins, the “jaTaa”, which means “wearing twisted locks of hair,” was a hairstyle worn by many of the figures written about 2,500 years ago.

De Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images

Intricate Braids

Braids were used to signify marital status, age, religion, wealth, and rank within West African communities. Nigerian housewives in polygamous relationships created the style known as kohin-sorogun, meaning “turn your back to the jealous rival wife,” that had a pattern that when seen from behind was meant to taunt their husbands’ other wives. If a young girl of Senegal’s Wolof people was not of marrying age, she would have to shave her head a certain way, while men of this same group would braid their hair a particular way to show preparation for war and therefore the preparation for death.

Michel Huet/Gamma-Rapho/Getty Images

Bantu Knots

Another hairstyle, still popular today, with rich African roots are Bantu knots. Bantu universally translates to “people” among many African languages, and is used to categorize over 400 ethnic groups in Africa. These knots are also referred to as Zulu knots because the Zulu people of South Africa, a Bantu ethnic group, originated the hairstyle. The look also goes by the name of Nubian knots.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Cornrows were named for their visual similarity to cornfields. Africans wore these tight braids laid along the scalp as a representation of agriculture, order and a civilized way of life. These type of braids have served many purposes, from an everyday convenience to a more elaborate adornment meant for special occasions. Other braided styles such as box braids connect back to the eembuvi braids of the Mbalantu women in Namibia.

In the age of colonialism, slaves wore cornrows not only as an homage to where they had come from, but also a practical way to wear one’s hair during long labored hours. Hair also played a role in the way enslaved workers were treated if the texture and kink of one’s hair more closely resembled European hair, they would receive better treatment.

A page from the Madam C.J. Walker Beauty School textbook, Madam C.J. Walker&aposs "Wonderful Hair Grower" and a 1920s electrical hot comb heater and comb.

Gift of A&aposLelia Bundles/Madam Walker Family Archives Gift from Dawn Simon Spears and Alvin Spears Sr Gift of Linda Crichlow White in honor of her aunt, Edna Stevens McIntyre/Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

The Quest for Straight Hair

Even after Emancipation, there was a growing notion that European textured hair was “good” and African textured hair was �,” foreign and unprofessional. Wigs and chemical treatments became the means to achieve smoother, straighter hair. Cornrows were still popular, but this time only as the base for sew-ins and extensions, not something thought of as for public display.

In the early 1900s, Annie Malone and Madam C.J. Walker started to develop products that targeted this want for straighter hair. Annie Malone sold a “Wonderful Hair Grower” treatment product and promoted the use of the hot comb through her Poro Company. While still far from enjoyable, the electrical hot comb was a gentler alternative to previous heated straightening methods.Starting in 1905, Madam C.J. Walker became a self-made millionaire with her own home remedy for hair and scalp issues, the infamous “Walker Method,” which combined a heated comb with pomade.

In the 1920s, Jamaica born Marcus Garvey began a black nationalist movement in America to spread his belief that all black people should return to their rightful homeland of Africa. Although many associate dreadlocks like Bob Marley’s with what became known as the Rastafari movement, the Ethiopian਎mperor it was named for was better known for his facial hair than the hair on his head.

The 60 Best Hair Color Trends of 2021, According to Stylists

If you're itching to change your color, you're not the only one. With the rise of at-home hair styling this year, there's no time like the present to reinvent yourself. If you're not comfortable heading to the salon yet, rest assured it's easy to recreate so many of these looks by dyeing your own hair at home. (If you're a newbie &mdash don't worry, we've got you covered with our favorite home hair color hacks). If you are headed to the salon, prepared to screenshot these cute celebrity looks to show your colorist (or for a trial run, test them out with some temporary hair dye). Seriously &mdash if you're itching to go blonde, brunette, or even try red, there's a flattering shade out there for you.

To help you try the best hair color trends of the year, we chatted with celebrity stylists and Instagram influencers to get their thoughts on the latest and greatest hues. Once you've selected your color, consider our short hair ideas, ombré inspo, and braided hairstyles for an even bigger transformation.

Bright blues, hot pinks, vibrant purples &mdash more people are experimenting with temporary hair color like Overtone that lasts for just a few washes instead of committing to bleach and a salon visit.

Keke Palmer's pinkish-red locks make for a bold, attention-getting hair color. If you're not ready to commit, temporary dye is a great way to try out a bright shade like this.

If Keke Palmer's shade of cherry red is a little too bright for your taste, try Zendaya's more natural-looking burgundy. The deep auburn shade is the perfect way for those with olive skin or darker to go red.

For those with pale skin, this light, cool-toned baby blonde will give your face a healthy glow. But if you're currently a brunette proceed with caution. Talk to your stylist about gradually lightening to this shade with a series of appointments to keep your hair healthy.

Shine is key to this glossy hue. If you're worried that this color will be too dark for you, ask your stylist for some subtle balayage highlights like Lucy Hale's &mdash which will soften any color.

Waiting a while for your next salon visit? You're not the only one &mdash stars like Dua Lipa have embraced this casual, low-maintenance trend. Since giving your strands a rest between bleaching sessions is always a good idea, it's a trend that happens to be gentle on your hair, too.

If you'd like a bleach-free, low-commitment way to change your hair color &mdash try a copper hair gloss. It will give blondes a temporary strawberry blonde hue, and brunettes an amber tone in natural lighting.

This piece-y and flattering early aughts method of highlighting is back in a big way. To keep things looking sunkissed and natural, always go for highlights two shades lighter than your natural hair color.

The two subtle strands of highlights framing Ciara's face add an instant touch of warmth, and draw the eye to her face. If you're highlighting just two strands, you may be able to lighten your hair naturally at home for this one.

The warm, rusty color of Issa Rae's hair perfectly complements her skin tone. If you're starting with dark brown hair, you can achieve this shade using henna dye.

This ultra-white shade Michelle Williams is sporting takes platinum blonde to the next level. The almost-silver hair color is trending all over Instagram as of late (blame Daenerys Targaryen). Make sure you grab some purple shampoo to maintain this icy hue.

If you've been considering going red for a while now, Katherine McNamara's peach is the perfect way to test the redhead waters. This warm, golden red is one of the most accessible ginger colors, and you'll be seeing it all over.

The caramel and auburn balayage highlights that frame Priyanka Chopra's face add light and dimension to her hair. This cinnamon color is the perfect highlight shade for brunettes who want to go light without going blonde.

Beyonce's hair color looks like mocha cafè au lait touched with a bit of gold.

Demi Lovato's jet black cut is just about as dark as you can go. And like its polar opposite platinum blonde, it's almost always universally flattering. Ask your colorist for "dark brunette" instead of "black" hair to avoid a cartoonish hue.

A full head of warm, honey-blonde highlights like the ones Jennifer Lopez has adds warmth and lightens your brunette without taking you all the way to blonde. Ask for this understated color if you want highlights, but to still stay a brunette.

Request warm-toned highlights rather than more summery champagne or platinum, says Rita Hazan, a celebrity colorist in New York City, who's created custom hues for celebs like J.Lo and Madonna. If you're dyeing your hair at home, add ribbons of highlights using a color kit no more than two shades lighter than your base look for terms like &ldquowarm,&rdquo &ldquogolden,&rdquo &ldquohoney,&rdquo &ldquobutter&rdquo and &ldquobuttery."

Ask for a clear shine glaze or lowlights with a deep brown undertone. At home, try a "gloss" treatment and add depth by painting on thin lowlights a shade darker than your base or look for a color like "caramel" or "chestnut."

Ask your pro for a toned-down copper to go lighter or auburn for a darker hue. At home, opt for a color kit with keywords on the box like &ldquomedium auburn,&rdquo &ldquodark auburn,&rdquo &ldquocopper,&rdquo or &ldquonatural&rdquo in the name of the shade.

Ask your colorist for a cool toner or gloss to neutralize any brassiness. Or try a cool-toned gloss, such as Rita Hazan True Color Ultimate Shine Gloss in Breaking Brass which also enhances shine and dimension.

Red, coppery tones are still going strong in 2020, but Matrix celebrity hairstylist George Papanikolas has an updated idea. For more summer-friendly hair, consider trying out a softer shade. "Since most redheads tend to fade very fast, this is a great color to play with when your hair is faded or after you've done some highlights," he says.

Ahh, bronde &mdash this hair color trend that's definitely gaining popularity as we go into the new year. "This is a great way to go lighter without requiring tons of upkeep or damage to the hair," says Papanikolas. "The highlights act as an accent and give the hair movement and dimension, rather than a drastic color change."

Lint also expects to see more ashy shades on brunettes like Olivia Palermo. If you have dark hair but want to liven it up for the months ahead, you should consider requesting this softer tone the next time you're in the salon.

"This is a great way to experiment with a playful color without the commitment or a full vivid shade," says Papanikolas. "Pastel balayage requires some maintenance, as these tones tend to fade quickly." To manage this, he recommends using an acid-based shampoo, like Matrix Total Results Keep Me Vivid.

Shown here on Sienna Miller, coral hair is a shade that works for all skin tones and works in medium blonde or lighter hair.

This year, it's all about looking naturalish, says Papanikolas. "A return to natural color is on the outlook, but when I say natural, don't mean, you know, natural," he says. "I'm talking about a more seamless blend of hair color."

Whether you choose a deeper tone to dye your roots or simply stick with your natural color, your stylist can add warm highlights to bring your hair into the new year. They may cascade down in bouncy curls, or frame your face if you style it straight. Either way, this is bound to show up among blondes, brunettes, and redheads alike, says Edward Blum, founder and owner of Makeovers Salon + Spa.

While rose gold had a major moment last year, trend forecasters think the new "it girl" hair color is lilac. The pastel purple shade, like this one from stylists Melody and Michael Lowenstein at Ross Michaels Salon, is what they call "when vintage meets modern." If you need even more encouragement, people can't stop searching and pinning the pastel shade on Pinterest.

Another way to boost your brunette hair is to follow one of the many coffee-tone trends. According to Blum, cold brew is when light undertones are carefully placed in the mid- and lower sections of the hair.

In the past, ombré hairstyles have been anything but subtle. But according to Rick Wellman, hue director at Marc Harris Salon, the color is going to be even more soft and blended. "It is low maintenance and promotes a natural-looking feel," he says. "It's commercial, glamorous, flattering, and wears well."

5 ways the pandemic is changing fashion and beauty trends

The coronavirus crisis has upended just about every part of daily life. Tens of millions of Americans are out of work, and a deepening recession has forced many people to rethink their spending. Retailers — already saddled with a glut of unsold winter and spring merchandise — are scrambling to get a handle on these new habits and what is projected to be a long-term shift in the types of clothing, shoes and accessories people will be willing to buy.

“The longer we stay in this pandemic, the more our relationship with fashion will evolve,” said Dawnn Karen, a fashion psychologist and branding consultant.

Here are five changes in the fashion and beauty industries already taking hold:

Hello, false lashes

Sales of eye makeup are on the rise as Americans look for ways to express themselves behind face masks while staying six feet apart.

Leading the charge: False eyelashes, which averaged 15 percent increases in week-over-week sales in May as businesses in many parts of the country began to reopen, according to market research firm NPD Group. Mascara sales, meanwhile, grew 11 percent in the same period, while demand for eyebrow products jumped 5 percent.

“It makes complete sense,” said Larissa Jensen, a beauty analyst for NPD. “When you have to go out and you’re wearing a protective face mask, those are the products that emphasize your ‘smize’ — your smiling eyes.”

Sales of lip products, meanwhile, fell 5 percent in May. After all, Jensen said, nobody wants lipstick smudges inside their masks.

Pubic Hair Trends, From Ancient Greece To Today

If you think the U.S. is the only country that demands that women sacrifice their wallets and test their personal pain thresholds in the name of vulva beauty, think again: Some women in Korea have recently begun undergoing pubic hair transplant surgery, a procedure that is intended to add extra hair to the pubic area, and will set you back a few hours and around $2000. In Korea, pubic hair is considered a sign of fertility and sexual health — which might sound like a beautiful dream to anyone who's spent roughly 100,000 hours of their adult life trying to wrangle their unruly pubes into an "acceptable" form. But while it might sound liberating, it appears this emphasis on an unnaturally fuller bush is just another pubic beauty standard for women to feel bad about not conforming to.

And pubic beauty standards — especially when it comes to female pubic hair — are fluctuating all of the time. A few years ago, everywhere I turned, I saw eulogies for The Pube. Who had killed thick female pubic hair, the trusted wiry protector of our lady bits? Was it porn, Sex and the City, those super low riding jeans? No one could agree, but everyone seemed to believe that the bush was gone forever.

But this past year, New York Times trend pieces and American Apparel window displays alike declared that the bush was back. While this whipsaw between extremes seems unprecedented — how can we go from no pubes to full pubes in three years? — the fact is that pubic hair trends have changed wildly from era to era, throughout recorded history. Which culture was the first to go fully bare? When did they invent the pubic hair wig? Find out as we explore our pubes, and ourselves.


As much as folks like to blame our modern hairless vag frenzy on Sarah Jessica Parker and company, our forebears were also interested in a smooth pudenda. The Egyptians removed pubic hair, as well as almost all of the other hair on their bodies, with sharp flints, pumice stones, or via a proto-waxing process, as did some women from other Middle Eastern cultures and some women in ancient Turkey used early hair depilatory creams.

The Greeks were not quite so lucky: they removed pubic hair by plucking out individual hairs until the whole area was deforested, or sometimes even by burning off pubic hair. The ancient Greeks thought pubic hair on women was "uncivilized," though there is some debate about whether average women went hairless, or just courtesans. Upper class women of ancient Rome also kept their bonnets smooth, and some men removed their body hair, as well — though they were thought to be "dandies" because of it.


Pubic fads swung the other way in the Middle Ages, when the trend was to maintain pubic hair. But some women of the era still kept their junk hairless, for erotic reasons or for hygiene's sake (there was a lot of pubic lice going around). Some even used an early, homemade version of a Nair-like hair removal cream. Oftentimes, these women then kept up appearances by using a merkin — a pubic hair wig that first shows up in recorded history in 1450.

Queen Elizabeth I set further body hair removal trends by keeping her pubic hair, but removing her eyebrow hair, which proved that women have always lived under pressure to keep up with bizarre, borderline nonsensical body fashion trends. Bush hair removal stayed off the table in the Western world for the next few centuries (though most sculptures and paintings of female nudes remained curiously bush-free).


The first women's body hair razor was released by Gillette in 1915, though ads focused on armpit hair. Nylon shortages during World War II encouraged women to go bare-legged, which led to greater proliferation of leg shaving and thus, when the bikini was first released in 1946, the stage was finally set for American women to "clean things up" down yonder with a razor.

Though no advertising campaigns ever came out and declared that pubic hair shaving was now considered necessary for American women, the thought seemed to be swirling in the background of many of them — like an ad campaign by razor manufacturers Wilkinson Sword that seized upon the early 20th century cultural mania for pseudoscience, and declared female underarm hair "unhygienic and unfeminine." And though it's difficult to indicate exactly when the practice became mainstreamed or how it was publicized, look at this photo from 1946, which features a woman modeling one of the first bikinis — odds are, she wasn't born with the Barbie doll pubic area you see before you:


The sixties and seventies tied ideas about sexual liberation to natural and freely grown body hair, making a full bush and lush armpit hair a sexy symbol of the counterculture — and making the term "seventies bush" synonymous with going totally au naturale in the underpantualr region. Yeah, some people kept shaving and trimming throughout this era, but what a bunch of squares, am I right?

THE EIGHTIES, NINETIES, AND OUGHTS: Bushes For President, Not Women

In the '80s and '90s, trimmed pubes proliferated. There was even a section in the 1996 play The Vagina Monologues about how going full-hairless was creepy and degrading — which seemed, at the time, a pretty common thought. A quick glimpse at the era's nude art photography by Helmut Newton— or a flip through a less highbrow publication, like Playboy — revealed that manicured but very present pubic hair on women was considered sexy and desirable.

But in the very late '90s, Brazilians became a celebrity trend. Though the completely bare Brazilian wax was brought stateside by the J. Sister Salon in 1987, it didn't enter the cultural consciousness until 1999, when stars like Gwyneth Paltrow began claiming that the look was life-changing.

And when the infamous "Brazilian" episode of Sex and the City premiered on September 17, 2000, the style transformed from another kooky celebrity trend into a full-fledged national obsession. Every salon in the country seemed to suddenly offer the once-obscure procedure.

There aren't any clear statistics about how many women decided to pave their paradise and put up a parking lot in the early 2000s, but the look became, at the very least, culturally omnipresent. The enthusiasm for Brazilians seemed tied to a rise in the popularity of cunnilingus, as well. And the craze made the Brazilian a standard part of many women's beauty routines — the look became so ubiquitous, doctors confirmed that it caused pubic lice to nearly become extinct by 2013. In 2009, razor manufacturer Wilkinson Sword was releasing commercials that depicted shaving your nether regions as cheeky fun — which fit in with the Brazilian's cultural identity as a simple, sassy way to get a little bit naughty.

Present day: minge is back

Which brings us to today, where publications and trend pieces seem to be falling over themselves to declare the start of the age of the retro bush. The New York Times cited the fuller bushes of Naomi Campbell and porn star Stoya as evidence of a trend, while the Today Show used recent comments by Cameron Diaz, Kathie Lee Gifford, Jenny McCarthy, and Gwyneth Paltrow supporting fuller pubic hair as proof that the Brazilian's days were numbered. And there were, of course, those American Apparel pubic hair mannequins — one of the company's New York City stores boasted mannequins with enormous, visible merkins over a few weeks last winter.

A 2013 UK poll found that 51 percent of women polled didn't trim or wax at all — and that of those women, 45 percent used to be into pubic styling, but had given up the (vulvic) ghost. Still, eports of the death of the Brazilian wax may still be exaggerated — a 2014 poll of Cosmopolitan readers found that 70 percent of them still go for a full Brazilian, and the Journal of Urology reports that more than 80 percent of female college students remove most of all of their pubes.

If we do all end up growing back the crotch shrubbery that God gave us, it won't be a revolution or a scandal — it'll simply be another swing of the pendulum in the wild, extremely wooly world of pubic hair trends.

The Main Principles of Successful Long Layered Hairstyles

  • A layered haircut adds volume to long hair and allows for flexibility when styling. Ask your hairdresser for long layers at the back and smooth, graded layers to frame the face. You can balance the layers with long bangs that can be styled to either side or straight.
  • Don’t forget about the details. Consider your personal style when choosing layers. Long layers that blend with one another look smooth and sleek, while a long shag hairstyle looks more undone and messy.
  • When cutting the layers framing your face, cut the shortest layer so that it highlights the most flattering point on your face—most often the cheekbones or the chin.

23 Inverted Bob Haircuts and Styles Worth Trying in 2021

So, you've decided you want a short bob haircut, huh? Great&mdashbut that's only the first step in picking out your new, shorter 'do. When it comes to bobs, you've gotta decide on the length, the angle, layers (or no layers!), bangs (or no bangs!), and much, much more. You'll also want to take into consideration your hair type, texture, and personal style before committing to a new look, and with all these factors to consider, it's easy to see just how customizable and versatile a bob really is.

The straight, blunt bob is really having a moment right now, but if you're tired of wearing your hair all one length, another version worth checking out is the inverted bob. Known for its angled shape with shorter layers in the back and longer pieces in the front, this cut gives your shorter cut a whole new vibe. Need a visual? We've got 23 examples of graduated, stacked, and inverted bobs and other similar angled haircuts (don't worry, we'll get into the different styles below) for you to look through, so keep scrolling.

How long does a perm last?

Generally, perms last anywhere from four to six months, but fun fact: The word "perm" is actually short for "permanent." Because you're actually changing the hair's texture, a perm doesn't just go away&mdashyou have to grow it out. If your perm is much softer than the classic '80s perm, your hair will grow out nicely without being too obvious. Otherwise, you'll probably want to go back for touch-ups around the six-month mark if you want to maintain your perm.

Have fashionable hair lengths ever been reversed from their current styles? - History

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