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Hart Crane

Hart Crane


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Hart Crane, the son of a successful drug store owner, was born in Garretsville, Ohio on 21st July 1899. His parents divorced in April 1917 and soon afterwards he left high school and moved to New York City. Over the next few years he did a variety of jobs including a shipyard worker and as an advertising copywriter.

Crane told Walker Evans that he became a homosexual after being seduced by an older man in 1919 in Akron, Ohio, where he was employed as a clerk in one of his father’s candy stores. However, because of his Christian Scientist upbringing, he never came to terms with his sexuality.

Crane went to live in Greenwich Village where he became close friends with Malcolm Cowley and his wife Peggy Baird. Cowley encouraged Hart to write but he later admitted that he had a serious drink problem: "Hart drank to write: he drank to invoke the visions that his poems are intended to convey."

On 17th October, 1921, wrote to William Wright explaining what he was trying to achieve as a poet: "I can only apologize by saying that if my work seems needlessly sophisticated it is because I am only interested in adding what seems to me something really new to what has been written. Unless one has some new, intensely personal viewpoint to record, say on the eternal feelings of love, and the suitable personal idiom to employ in the act, I say, why write about it?.... I admit to a slight leaning toward the esoteric, and am perhaps not to be taken seriously. I am fond of things of great fragility, and also and especially of the kind of poetry John Donne represents, a dark musky, brooding, speculative vintage, at once sensual and spiritual, and singing rather the beauty of experience than innocence"

Eugene O'Neill was one of his earliest supporters. Crane wrote to his mother on 3rd February, 1924: "O'Neill ... recently told a mutual friend of ours that he thinks me the most important writer of all in the group of younger men with whom I am generally classed".

In 1924 Crane began an affair with Emil Opffer, a Danish merchant mariner. According to one biographer: "With him, an emotional relationship developed in which Crane was intensely engaged. Crane never found a single partner with whom to share his life, and after Opffer, he may have felt such a partner could never be found. His affairs were temporary, mostly anonymous, and sometimes violent." His relationship with Opffer inspired a series of poems that became known as Voyages. These poems were included in his first collection, White Buildings (1926).

Crane's poetry was not popular but he had some important supporters. E. E. Cummings said that "Crane’s mind was no bigger than a pin, but it didn’t matter; he was a born poet." Another reviewer argued that "Crane masterfully uses variations in rhythm and syntax to establish a powerful, nearly invisible foundation that provides a dynamic forward movement to a poetic line that is bristling with significance, its diction drawn from virtually dozens of conflicting and overlapping registers."

Crane was a great admirer of the work of T.S. Eliot but disliked his pessimism. He also thought The Waste Land was too critical of the modern world and attempted to write poems that provided a balanced view of contemporary developments. His friend, Malcolm Cowley, later revealed that Crane could only write under the influence of alcohol. "But the recipe could be followed for a few years at the most, and it was completely effective only for two periods of about a month each, in 1926 and 1927, when working at top speed he finished most of the poems included in The Bridge. After that more and more alcohol was needed, so much of it that when the visions came he was incapable of putting them on paper."

A second volume of poems, The Bridge, appeared in 1930 to mixed reviews. Cudworth Flint wrote: "This poem seems to me indubitably the work of a man of genius, and it contains passages of compact imagination and compelling rhythms. But its central intention, to give to America a myth embodying a creed which may sustain us somewhat as Christianity has done in the past, the poem fails." However, Yvor Winter argued: "These poems illustrate the dangers inherent in Mr. Crane’s almost blind faith in his moment-to-moment inspiration, the danger that the author may turn himself into a kind of stylistic automaton, the danger that he may develop a sentimental leniency toward his vices and become wholly their victim, instead of understanding them and eliminating them."

The publication of The Bridge meant that Crane was recognized as an important poet and Eda Lou Walton announced he was being included in her New York University course in contemporary poetry. He was also awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1931. During this period he began an affair with Peggy Baird. It was his only heterosexual relationship and it was probably instigated by Peggy, who had a reputation for being very promiscuous. She told her friend, Dorothy Day that sex was "a barrier that kept men and women from fully understanding each other, and thus a barrier to be broken down". In 1931 Peggy left her husband, Malcolm Cowley, and went to live with Crane in Mexico.

In 1932 he decided to return to New York City the ship Orizaba. On 27th April Crane's sexual advances to a male crew member were rejected. He had been drinking heavily when several passengers heard him call out "goodbye, everybody" before jumping overboard.

Hart drank to write: he drank to invoke the visions that his poems are intended to convey. But the recipe could be followed for a few years at the most, and it was completely effective only for two periods of about a month each, in 1926 and 1927, when working at top speed he finished most of the poems included in The Bridge. After that more and more alcohol was needed, so much of it that when the visions came he was incapable of putting them on paper.

Imagine my surprise when Emil Opffer brought me to this street where, at the very end of it, I saw a scene that was more familiar than a hundred factual previsions could have rendered it! And there is all the glorious dance of the river directly beyond the back window of the room I am to have as soon as Emil’s father moves out, which is to be soon. Emil will be back then from South America where he had to ship for wages as a ship’s writer. That window is where I would be most remembered of all: the ships, the harbor, and the skyline of Manhattan, midnight, morning, or evening - rain, snow, or sun, it is everything from mountains to the walls of Jerusalem and Nineveh, and all related in actual contact with the changelessness of the many waters that surround it. I think the sea has thrown itself upon me and been answered, at least in part, and I believe I am a little changed - not essentially, but changed and transubstantiated as anyone is who has asked a question and been answered.

The bridge as a symbol today has no significance beyond an economical approach to shorter hours, quicker lunches, behaviorism and toothpicks. And inasmuch as the bridge is a symbol of all such poetry as I am interested in writing it is my present fancy that a year from now I'll be more contented working in an office than ever before. Rimbaud was the last great poet that our civilization will see – he let off all the great cannon crackers in Valhalla's parapets, the sun has set theatrically several times since while Jules Laforgue, Eliot and others of that kidney have whimpered fastidiously. Everybody writes poetry now – and "poets" for the first time are about to receive official social and economic recognition in America. It's really all the fashion, but a dead bore to anticipate. If only America were half as worthy today to be spoken of as Whitman spoke of it fifty years ago there might be something for one to say – not that Whitman received or required any tangible proof of his intimations, but that time has shown how increasingly lonely and ineffectual his confidence stands.

It is necessary, before attempting to criticize Mr. Crane’s new book (The Bridge), to place it in the proper genre and to give as accurate an account as one is able of its theme. The book cannot be called an epic, in spite of its endeavor to create and embody a national myth, because it has no narrative framework and so lacks the formal unity of an epic. It is not didactic, because there is no logical exposition of ideas; neither Homer nor Dante will supply a standard of comparison. The structure we shall find is lyrical; but the poem is not a single lyric, it is rather a collection of lyrics on themes more or less related and loosely following out of each other. The model, in so far as there is one, is obviously Whitman, whom the author proclaims in this book as his master....

These poems illustrate the dangers inherent in Mr. Crane’s almost blind faith in his moment-to-moment inspiration, the danger that the author may turn himself into a kind of stylistic automaton, the danger that he may develop a sentimental leniency toward his vices and become wholly their victim, instead of understanding them and eliminating them....

It is possible that Mr. Crane may recover himself. In any event, he has given us, in his first book, several lyrics that one is tempted to call great, and in both books several charming minor lyrics and many magnificent fragments. And one thing he has demonstrated, the impossibility of getting anywhere with the Whitmanian inspiration. No writer of comparable ability has struggled with it before, and, with Mr. Crane’s wreckage in view, it seems highly unlikely that any writer of comparable genius will struggle with it again.

This poem seems to me indubitably the work of a man of genius, and it contains passages of compact imagination and compelling rhythms. But its central intention, to give to America a myth embodying a creed which may sustain us somewhat as Christianity has done in the past, the poem fails. And for a quite simple reason. The radical metaphor and the psychological method, which is really a string of such metaphors, by their particularity are adapted to the representation of unique objects or shades of feeling, and may as Mr. Winters suggests even on occasion be a source of single ideas. But any general theory – of America, life. God, or anything else – whgich is intended as a basis for thought and feeling in many different minds, must evidently be generalized so as to make it capable of adequate transplanting. Now, generalization necessitates formalization; form in ideas implies system; and a system requires a logical, rather than a merely associative, method of presentation, for system is logic. A system may be faulty, but it is then faulty logic; its faults, as well as its virtues, exist on the plane of logic. Particular metaphors and psychological sequences, expressing as they do identities peculiar to the individual, are ill adapted to furnish us with anything that can be seen as a system; they usually result at best in a vagrant route, and at worst in a jungle. In a poem such as The Bridge, therefore, however appropriate to certain passages the psychological method may be, either as furnishing metaphors for presenting details, or as a way of arriving at particular insights, when applied to the representation of Mr. Crane's central body of ideas (or intuitions, or feelings; at any rate, they are intended to form a body, or organic system) the method breaks down. We feel behind the poem a definite intellectual structure trying to break through the imagery, but strangled in the attempt. Or better, the poem is a super-saturated solution, with ideas trembling on the verge of crystallization; but the needed shock does not come and the ideas remain fluidly elusive behind the symbolism.

There is in The Bridge, then, a series of concealed sexual puns which may serve to transfigure the world from the banality of logic into the brilliant liquid motion of verbal and sexual play; or alternatively may be no more than a perpetual rebellion from final assertion and resolution... Jesting wordplay was Crane’s specialty, and his friend Samuel Loveman was another who remembered Hart introducing this wordplay into daily life: "riding on the subway was just one holocaust of laughter because he saw double meanings in all the ads and usually obscene meanings. He claimed that most of them had some sexual or phallic undercurrent of meaning. I doubted that, although very frequently he was right or seemed to be right." Crane exploits these sexual double meanings in The Bridge, but is always striving to make them more than simply a form of confession. I noted how Emerson’s famous essay on "the Poet" talked of the need to apprehend analogies between past and present as such bridging would boost America’s cultural self-esteem by its recognition that "Methodism and Unitarianism … rest on the same foundations of wonder as the town of Troy and the temple of Delphi"; and this same Emerson essay ,ay have been one of the inspirations behind Crane’s attempt to metamorphose his own private history into the public history of America: "Time and nature yield us many gift, but not yet the timely man, the new religion, the reconciler, whom all things await. Dante’s praise is that he dared to write his autobiography in colossal cipher, or into universality."


Clarence A. Crane

Clarence A. Crane (1875-1931) spent his youth in Garrettsville, Ohio. His father produced maple sugar.

Clarence Crane married Grace Edna Hart on June 1, 1898, after a courtship of only two months. The following summer, the couple's only child was born, poet Harold Hart Crane. The Cranes' marriage was a difficult one. Grace Crane suffered from mental illness, and the couple separated on several occasions. The marriage finally ended in divorce on April 7, 1917.

Despite his troubled personal life, Crane prospered as a businessman. He worked for his father until 1903, when he formed his own maple sugar business in Warren, Ohio. Crane's company quickly emerged as the largest producer of maple sugar in the world. In 1909, Crane sold the business, but he continued to work for the firm as a salesman in Cleveland, Ohio, for the next two years. In 1911, Crane began to produce chocolate candy in Cleveland. His company was known as the Queen Victoria Chocolate Company.

In 1912, Crane created a new type of candy. He realized that many people refused to buy chocolate during the summer months because chocolate melted easily in the heat. To produce the new candy, the chocolate maker used a machine that pharmacists used to manufacture round flat pills. He then punched a hole in the middle of the candy, making it resemble a life preserver. Crane called his new candy Life Savers.

Initially, Life Savers only came in peppermint flavor. Crane marketed the candy, known as Pep-O-Mint Life Savers, as a breath mint, claiming on the packaging that it was "For That Stormy Breath." Originally, Crane packaged the candy in cardboard tubes. The wrapper had a picture of a sailor tossing a young woman a life preserver.

In 1913, Crane sold the rights to Life Savers to two New York candy manufacturers. These new producers wrapped Life Savers in foil tubes to better preserve the candy. They also marketed the candy to saloon owners, hoping that customers would use Life Savers to improve their breath after drinking and smoking in the bars. Once saloon owners began selling the candy, Life Savers soared in popularity. As of 2015, Life Savers were a brand of Mars, Inc.

Crane remained involved in the candy business for the remainder of his life, although he no longer manufactured Life Savers after 1913. He formed the Crane Chocolate Company in 1916. While the company was headquartered in Cleveland, by 1921, the firm had sales offices in New York City, New York, and Kansas City, Missouri. Crane died on July 6, 1931.


Hart Crane

"Hart Crane's poems are profound and deep-seeking. In them he reveals, with a new insight and unique power, the mystic undertones of beauty which move words to express vision."
- Eugene O'Neill

The early years Harold Hart Crane (no relation to Stephen Crane) was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, about halfway between Cleveland and Youngstown in the state's northeastern section. His father, Clarence, invented the LifeSaver ® candy ringlet as a way to increase his summertime business when chocolate sales were lagging. Hart dropped out of high school after his parents divorced. He spent most of his time shuttling from Cleveland, where he was a sometime cub reporter and worker in his father's factory, to New York City, where he wrote copy for advertising agencies and mail-order catalogs. It was in the Big Apple that Hart discovered his homosexuality, and where he was most comfortable in a largely homophobic culture. Hart's writing was influenced early on by T.S. Eliot (The Waste Land). He identified with Eliot's style, if not his pessimism. Later on, Walt Whitman and his American sensibilities inspired him. Critics sometimes aired the notion that Hart forced his Eliot-influenced words into Whitman-esque templates. Maturing verse Crane's best-known works include The Bridge (1930), a series of poems intended to be the "American epic." They were based on his experiences and observations while coming of age in the shadows of the Brooklyn Bridge. White Buildings included some of his best lyrics and Voyages I was an incredibly sensitive and heartfelt series of love letters to his ex-lover Emil Opffer, a Danish ship's purser, his one true love. It should be noted that Crane had a brief heterosexual affair with the ex-wife of his friend, Malcom Cowley, during his stay in Mexico in 1931-32, on a Guggenheim fellowship. That entry on the ledger's bright side inspired his last great poem, The Broken Tower. ² Epitaph Crane was in his prime during the Roaring Twenties. He got caught up in the glitz and glamour of the era. He was an intelligent alcoholic, like many of his contemporaries, and volatile when manic depression reared its hoary head. His poetic style was upbeat, as much as life would allow, but drink and unrequited love precipitated a downward spiral with predictable results. Crane committed suicide by leaping into the Caribbean from the S.S. Orizaba in 1932.

² The Broken Tower was the title selected by Paul Mariani for his biography of Crane.


Hart Crane American Poet

Harold Hart Crane was born at this site on July 21, 1899, to Grace Hart Crane and Clarence A. Crane, the inventor of Lifesaver Candies, and lived here until the age of three. "A born poet," according to e.e. cummings, Crane dropped out of high school in 1916 and moved from Cleveland to New York City to focus on a literary career. Mainly self-educated, Crane drew his influence from the writings of Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson. His major work, The Bridge (1930), uses the Brooklyn Bridge as the perfect metaphor to celebrate contemporary urban life. Uniquely lyrical in structure and full of imagery, it is considered one of the three major poetic sequences of the first half of the twentieth century along with T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land and William Carlos Williams' Paterson. Crane died on April 26, 1932.

Erected 2003 by Ohio Bicentennial Commission, Greater Cincinnati Foundation, and The Ohio Historical Society. (Marker Number 5-67.)

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Arts, Letters, Music. In addition, it is included in the Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection, and the Walt Whitman 🏳️‍🌈 series lists. A significant historical date for this entry is April 26, 1932.

81° 5.873′ W. Marker is in Garrettsville, Ohio, in Portage County. Marker is on Freedom Street 0.1 miles east of South Street (Ohio Route 88), on the right when traveling east. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Garrettsville OH 44231, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 5 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Maple Industry in Garrettsville, Ohio (about 800 feet away, measured in a direct line) "Creepy" Karpis and The Last Great Train Heist (approx. 0.2 miles away) Garrettsville, Ohio (approx. 0.2 miles away) Commemorating the 120th Anniversary (approx. 0.2 miles away) History of Koritansky Hall (approx. 3 miles away) James A. Garfield (approx. 3 miles away) Hiram College (approx. 3.1 miles away) The Underground Railroad/Escaping Slavery In Eastern Ohio (approx. 4.9 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Garrettsville.

Also see . . . Hart Crane. Poetry Foundation (Submitted on August 19, 2018, by Mike Wintermantel of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.)


Hart Crane and family papers

Finding Aid

Prepared by Alex Gildzen Last Updated: October 2019

Inclusive Dates: 1917-1989
Extent: 5 cubic feet (2 record storage boxes, 1 document case, 1 shoebox, 1 media box, 2 oversized boxes, 1 custom box, 2 tube containers, oversized folders)
Physical Location: 11th floor

Biographical Note: Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, on July 21, 1899. He was the only child of Grace Edna Hart and Clarence A. Crane, original manufacturer of the Lifesaver candy. He grew up in Portage, Trumbull, and Cuyahoga counties. Crane published his first poem in 1916, and his first book, White Buildings, a decade later. His masterpiece, The Bridge, was first published in 1930 by the legendary Black Sun Press. Hart Crane died at the age of 32, an apparent suicide after jumping from the SS Orziaba into the Gulf of Mexico. The Collected Poems of Hart Crane was published after his death and The Complete Poems and Selected Letters and Prose of Hart Crane was published in 1966. In 1972, The University of Pittsburgh Press issued Hart Crane: A Descriptive Bibliography.

Crane was the favorite poet of the great American playwright, Tennessee Williams. Robert Lowell called him the Shelley of his age. Literary scholar R.W.B. Lewis wrote about Crane as "one of the dozen-odd major poets in American history." Crane's epic poem, The Bridge, was read on national television during the celebration of the Brooklyn Bridge.

Arrangement: The collection has been organized into 3 series.

  • Series 1: Hart Crane and family papers I includes materials purchased by Special Collections and Archives.
  • Series 2: Hart Crane and family papers II contains materials donated by Professor Vivian Pemberton.
  • Series 3: Hart Crane and family artifacts

Processing Note: Additions have been made to this collection that resulted in its name being changed to the "Hart Crane and family papers." The former title of the collection was the "Hart Crane papers."

Related Materials: Special Collections and Archives has an extensive collection of published works by and about Hart Crane. These are cataloged in KentLINK and housed in our LC-classified book collection. Please contact Special Collections and Archives for assistance in locating published works.

Restrictions on Use: All of the material in Series 2 and much of the material in Series 3 of this collection was donated by Vivian H. Pemberton in 1986 and in the late 1990s. This material may not be duplicated or used in publication without written permission of the donor.

Series 1: Hart Crane and family papers I

Scope and Content: Series 1 of this collection includes letters to Charles Harris and other associates as well as manuscripts of a few individual poems.

Box 1
Folder -- Contents

  1. 1923, 19 April: [New York City]. To Charles [Harris], [Cleveland]. Thanks him for letter announces J. Walter Thompson is trying to get him a job in his copy department but Crane is only "mildly hopeful" mentions lunching with Untermeyer, Burke and Frank "Alfred Steiglitz says I am the first one to discover the secret of his marvelous photos--which means an article when I can get time." Autograph Postcard Signed. 1l., 14cm.
  2. 1923, 11 May: [New York City]. To Charles [Harris]. Writes with a "hang-over" about recent hospitality says he is "just discovering what a rich place" New York City is mentions he's been the guest of Slater Brown announces he's "danced the gotzotsky so much that my calves almost refuse to function" getting tired of "job-chasing" sees "Stieglitz, O'Keefe, John Marin, Frank, and am soon to meet the beloved Paul Rosenfeld" "my cartoon in the last Little Review has caused a little fun all around." Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 17.6cm.
  3. 1923, 8 July: [New York City] To Charles [Harris]. Excuses his letter being typed mentions drinking the night before with the Gorham Munsons and Jean Toomer been "furiously busy" has begun "my Bridge poem" "I occasionally get very tired of it. " lists reading and recent publications. Typed Letter Signed with autograph postscript. 1p., 28cm.
  4. 1923, 2 Dec.: [New York City] To Charles [Harris]. Discusses mutual friends announces he's left job at Thompson's "I got so I simply gagged everytime I sat before my desk to write an ad" says he is leaving tomorrow for Woodstock mentions a character (probably in a piece by Harris). Autograph Letter Signed. 3p., 22.5 cm.
  5. 1925, 21 Dec.: [Patterson, N.Y.] To Charles [Harris] [Cleveland]. Sends season's greetings apologizes for not seeing him on last Cleveland visit announces he's "well provided for and writing on The Bridge" "Otto Kahn has provided me with ample funds for a year's free work on my poetry. ". Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 21.3cm.
  6. 1926, 20 Feb.: [Patterson, N.Y.] To Charles [Harris]. Sends greetings on Harris' plan to sail to Europe says he's "a little bored with this ultimate privacy of a rural winter" describes reading "everything from Spanish history to New Bedford Whaling records, from D.H. Lawrence to Lord Bacon" "Meanwhile the scaffoldings for the Bridge jacknife upward a little and a few stanzas seem to have been evolved." Autograph Letter Signed. 2p., 21.5cm.
  7. 1926, 30 Nov.: [Patterson, N.Y.] To Charles [Harris]. Asks about Europe "I was in the Isle of Pines from May until the October hurricane which made the family place unliveable" describes Cuba mentions mutual friend "still writing on The Bridge--3/4 of which is done. 9/10 of my money gone--too!" " 'White Buildings' will be out in about 2 weeks. " Autograph Letter Signed. 2p., 21.4cm.
  8. 1927, 8 May: [Patterson, N.Y.] To Charles [Harris]. Thanks him for his reaction to "White Buildings" "I have received very few comments" hopes to finish "The Bridge" by autumn tells where sections are being published "When I was in Cleveland three weeks ago I was so occupied with my mother's divorce proceedings on the one hand, and my father's nervous collapse on the other--that I didn't get time to look you up." Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 28cm.
  9. 1927, 25 July: Patterson, N.Y. To Jack _____. Thanks him for ordering magazine misses seeing his mother wants to know if he charge items at Brentano's. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 28cm.
  10. 1929, 13 Aug.: Patterson, N.Y. To [Louis] Untermeyer. Returned from Paris three weeks ago discusses Malcom Cowley's poems tells him where to buy The Bridge grants reprint permission suggests lunching in the fall. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27cm.
  11. 1930, 28 Feb.: Brooklyn. To Mr. [Floyd] Van Vuren. Apologizes for not seeing him last night sends him an article on the Brooklyn Bridge will send a copy of his book looks forward to seeing his column. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.8cm.
  12. 1930, 8 June: Patterson, N.Y. To Sam [Loveman?]. Thanks him for forwarding mail spent time with Bill Brown Received check from father answered Yvor Winters' "fool review" asks him to send a review of The Bridge. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm.
  13. [1969]: Clark, David R. Guide to Hart Crane. Typed Document (copy). 47p. [i.e. 52p.], 27.8cm. A xerox copy of the final draft of Guide to Hart Crane with corrections. Part of the Charles E. Merrill Program in American literature. Matthew J. Bruccoli and Joseph Katz, General Editors. Inscribed on title page by Mat[thew J. Bruccoli] To Hy[man Kritzer].
  14. 1983, 17 May: Brooklyn Bridge commemorative stamp. First day cover.
  15. Undated: To Charles [Harris]. Thanks him for Christmas card and sends season's greetings. Autograph Letter Signed. 1p., 21.5cm.
  16. Undated: Altadena, Cal. To Conning. Thanks him for records sends a rattle and grain alcohol. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 28cm.
  17. Undated: To Mary F. Wolcott, Jamaica, N.Y. Regrets not seeing her before leaving is living in the San Gabriel Valley. Autograph Postcard Signed. 1p., 8.6cm.
  18. Undated: The Bridge of Estador. Typed Document. 1p., 27.3cm. Carbon copy of poem with a note from CAH [Charles Harris?] to JJD [James Daly?] asking for "frank criticism." Written in 1921 and unpublished. ". a pastiche of lines rejected from other poems, fragments of work in progress, and fragments that would eventually be worked into as yet unwritten poems." Unterecker, Voyager, p. 191.
  19. Undated: Stark Major. Typed Document. 1p., 26.7cm. Written in early 1923, Lohf. Variations from version published in The Collected Poems of Hart Crane (New York, 1933): line 1 - "death--regular" line 3 - comma after "sun" line 5 - "There is not yet" line 7&8 - "That joining hands will answer after The blown circuits of its later glare." line 12 - "her, -- not" line 17 - "and you," line 18 - "Answering still" line 23&24 - "Than your's--in estacies You shall not ever reach or share"
  20. Undated: For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen. Typed Document. 2p., 28cm. With expanded version. Typed Document. 5p., 27.5cm. Two versions of the poem written in 1921-23 (Unterecker). First published in Broom magazine (Lohf). Published in White Buildings and The Collected Poems.
  21. Undated: Secession flier. Printed with autograph inscription. 1p., 23.3 cm. Advertising flier for a new magazine which lists Crane as a contributor. Sent by Crane to Charles Harris with note at bottom: "My friend, Munson's, magazine (#1 due in April) Hart.

Series 2: Hart Crane and family papers II

Scope and Content: Series 2 of the collection includes family letters, primarily to and from Hart Crane's father, Clarence A. Crane. Additionally, there are clippings, historical documents, Crane family correspondence, and audio recordings included in this series.

Acquisition Information: This portion of the collection was donated by Vivian H. Pemberton, then Professor of English at Kent State University's Trumbull campus, in 1986.

Restrictions on Use: This material may not be duplicated or used in publication without written permission of the donor.

Box 1 (continued)
Folder -- Contents

  1. 1917, 18 Jan.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Harold [Hart Crane], 1899-1932, [New York, N.Y.]. Asks him to write and tell him what he is doing did not know he planned to write and "sell" his thoughts wants to know how much he needs to live on per week comments on his business. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  2. 1917, 20 Jan.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Senses his disappointment trying to be economical education stopped because everything was up-rooted at home, but he wants to continue his education hopes to be independent of his support when he is 20. Typed Letter Signed. 3p., 28cm.
  3. 1917, 25 Jan.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Harold [Hart] Crane, New York, N.Y. His health is good doesn't think New York is the place to study, but will continue to support his efforts comments on business will send his letter on to his mother. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  4. 1917, 27 Jan.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Saw the burning of Huyler's chocolate factory is worried about his mother's health. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 28cm.
  5. 1917, 2 Feb.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Plans to move to better room basic costs for a week are $13.00 looking for a position "in the writing line" Harriet Moody introduced him to editors and writers, including Rabindranath Tagore. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 28cm.
  6. 1917, 3 Feb.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Harold [Hart] Crane, New York, N.Y. Encloses a check for $25.00. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  7. 1917, 10 Feb.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Harold [Hart] Crane, New York, N.Y. He is going to Chicago and then on to the west coast his mother is better but will stay with her until she comes to a decision "regarding her matters" enclosed $50.00. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  8. 1917, 1 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Glad he approves of his studies hopes to enter Columbia next fall his poetry is being accepted "right and left" he can find one piece in the Pagan if he goes to Laukhuff's Bookstore could use increase in his allowance. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25.3cm.
  9. 1917, 2 Apr.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Anxious to discuss his allowance his mother's health is improving. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  10. 1917, 4 Apr.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart]. Had long discussion with his mother about his plans both wish to be supportive their divorce has been a great trial. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 26.2cm.
  11. 1917, 7 Apr.: [Crane] Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Thanks for check studies 6 hours a day certain he will become one of the "foremost poets in America" discusses allowance met Frank Harris more poems accepted for Pagan. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25.3cm.
  12. 1917, 13 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Will see Hazel Hasham Cazes the war has upset him greatly. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 25.3cm.
  13. 1917, 14 Apr.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Divorce granted today hopes he and his mother can remain friends. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  14. 1917, 17 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Dined with Hazel Hasham Cazes glad divorce is over thanks for suit and ties looks forward to his visit. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 25.3cm.
  15. 1917, 18 Apr.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. His mother calls him nearly every day both are adjusting to divorce praises Hazel Hasham Cazes. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.5cm.
  16. 1917, 27 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Worried about his mother asks him to send word soon. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 25.3cm.
  17. 1917, 28 Apr.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. His mother is well except she is very nervous encourages him to continue his work business has been slow. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.6cm.
  18. [1917?] [Apr.]: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Patterson, [N.Y.[ To [Crane] C[larence] A. Received news of the divorce trial enjoyed their last visit hopes he won't cancel his Canadian trip. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.9cm.
  19. 1917, 7 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Business is very poor hopes he will enjoy having his mother in New York. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.1cm
  20. 1917, 9 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Sends article from the American Magazine, and a poem. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm
  21. [1917?] 15 May: [Crane], Grace [Hart], New York, N.Y. To Crane, C[larence] A., Cleveland, Ohio. Must see him either in New York or Cleveland. Telegram. 1p., 16.2cm.
  22. 1917, 19 May: Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] His letter of May 15 "wounded" mother asks that he be more considerate of him who has "suffered terribly, and am an old man before twenty" Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brooks live in the same building and have been very kind. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25.4cm.
  23. 1917, 23 May: Shoot, Ervin, Cleveland, Ohio. To Crane, C[larence] A., Omaha, Nebraska. Informs him of Orsa Beardsley's, his cousin, death. Typed Telegram. 1p., 17.7cm.
  24. 1917, 24 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold Hart, New York, N.Y. Sets new allowance encourages him in his studies and work warns him of self-pity work to fulfill ambitions his parents have for him. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm.
  25. 1917, 11 June: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. War conditions bad for business visited Garrettsville and Ravenna. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.6cm.
  26. 1917, 23 June: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Describes candy packages glad he likes new apartment in New York saw his friend Gordon Volland in Chicago. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.7cm.
  27. 1917, 27 June: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Asks for rent money and money for a suit and shoes being tutored in French has heard from his friend William Wright wants to know about Canary Cottage. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25.2cm.
  28. 1917, 2 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Has had many visitors, including Maxfield Parrish visited the Seiberling home in Akron encloses check. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm.
  29. 1917, 5 June [i.e. 5 July]: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Envies his visit with Maxfield Parrish Seiberling place in Akron must be fine sends photo plans to spend week-end in Connecticut. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 63-64.
  30. 1917, 7 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. His letter of the 5th gave more pleasure than any he has had from him has had health problems but is better sends design for the Lincoln Highway. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.6cm.
  31. 1917, 14 July: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Likes Maxfield Parrish's design for candy box mother is in Newport and will miss visit from the Harts sends article about Mary Garden. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 28.1cm.
  32. 1917, 20 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Sends money for a birthday dinner visited the Volland family in Chicago. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.2cm.
  33. 1917, 4 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Will try to interest art dealers in paintings of Carl Schmitt his mother has not been well. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  34. 1917, 8 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. His mother is much better. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.4cm.
  35. 1917, 10 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Mother is better and will arrive in New York on Monday painting by Carl Schmitt has arrived and he likes it. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.4cm.
  36. 1917, 11 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Mother had a sick spell, is better, but won't start for New York as planned. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.3cm.
  37. 1917, 15 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Mother has been quite ill. Telegram. 1p., 13.2cm.
  38. 1917, 15 Aug.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To Crane, C[larence] A., Cleveland Ohio. Sick in bed no word from you. Telegram. 1p., 16.4cm.
  39. 1917, 20 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Plans a vacation always wants best for him and his mother. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  40. 1917, 19 Sep.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Comments on the difficulty of doing business difficulty in adjusting to divorce by both him and his mother. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 26.3cm.
  41. 1917, 8 Oct.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Has moved to a new room enjoys the company of Mr. and Mrs. Brooks New York part of the candy business is a problem discusses allowance. Autograph Letter Signed. 4p., 28.1cm.
  42. 1917, 10 Oct.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Comments on the difficulty of their relationship discusses allowance suggests he find some employment can't understand why he needs to live in New York to study the war has reduced profits of his business. Typed Letter (carbon). 3p., 26cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 82-85.
  43. 1917, 14 Oct.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Discusses need for some winter clothing explains his plan for his life's work wants to stay in New York and never live in Cleveland again if he can help it is not extravagant in use of money believes his allowance is owed to him. Typed Letter Signed. 3p., 28.1cm.
  44. 1917, 16 Oct. [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Understands how he feels is coming to New York. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 26.2cm.
  45. 1917, 22 Oct.: [Crane], Harold [Hart] To [Crane, Clarence A.] Sorry for the bad turn in business and that he won't be able to come to New York soon has been praised by an editor who will publish two of his poems. Autograph Letter Signed. 4p., 26.5cm.
  46. 1917, 24 Oct.: [Crane], Harold [Hart]. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Needs a pair of shoes. Autograph Letter Signed. 1p., 22.1cm.
  47. 1917, 27 Oct.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Hopes to continue allowance, but business is very bad considering what needs to be done to stay in business. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 26.5cm.
  48. 1917, 3 Nov.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Thanks for money for shoes needs money for a suit. Autograph Letter Signed. 1p., 26.5cm.
  49. 1917, 5 Nov.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. Can't understand need for a suit when he provided money for one in October understands he has been drawing on his allowance in advance and asks him not to do so knows many who live on $16 a week while his allowance is $25.00 the times are hard and thinks he should get a job. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 25.3cm.
  50. 1917, 14 Nov.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Can read French well now hears he may soon have to close the New York office hopes he likes his latest poem has two more coming out next month hopes to get one in The Little Review soon he may be drafted. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 26.6cm.
  51. 1917, 20 Nov.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold H[art], New York, N.Y. Has read his poem in the Pagan and doesn't always get the "drift" of his poems doesn't think much of the Pagan The Little Review is better giving considerable thought to how best to conduct his business. Typed Letter (carbon). 3p., 26.4cm
  52. 1917, 23 Nov.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], New York, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A,] Agrees with him about the "tone" of the Pagan, but right now The Little Review seems beyond him French is coming along very well glad he is beginning to "find himself." Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 26.6cm.
  53. 1917, 13 Dec.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Is looking forward to his visit to Cleveland at Christmas glad he has a poem accepted by The Little Review. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 24.2cm.
  54. [1918?]: Crane, Harold [Hart]. To ______. Battleship in the middle of Union Square as advertising for recruiting draft riots it is "treason to talk anti-conscription now." Typed Letter Signed (fragment). 1p., 27.7cm.
  55. 1924, 23 June: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Brooklyn, N.Y. Sorry he is suffering an attack of uric acid recommends a change of diet. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.9cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 324-325.
  56. 1925, 27 June: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Staying with friends on a farm in the Berkshires will probably return to New York in three weeks plans to take a job on a boat. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.5cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 422-423.
  57. 1925, 4 Nov.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Brooklyn, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Back in New York looking for work knows he is not interested in his son anymore book is to be published in the spring critics say it is most important first book of poetry since Whitman's in 1855 sorry his father can't muster up a better appreciation for his son. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 27.5cm.
  58. 1925, 17 Nov.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Brooklyn, N.Y. It seems "we are always to travel different paths" sorry he has such a low opinion of him since it is a check he wants, he encloses $50.00. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.6cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 440-441.
  59. 1925, 25 Nov.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Brooklyn, N.Y. Families do mean something even if they are broken regrets that they can find little to agree upon concerning the conduct of their lives feels that most writing must be an avocation and not a vocation. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.6cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 443-444.
  60. 1926, 2 Mar.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane], Harold [Hart]. Grandmother's health is improving, but it has been a strain on his mother glad his health is good. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.9cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 472-473.
  61. 1926, 9 July: Liveright, Horace B[risbin], 1886-1933, New York, N.Y. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, Cuba. Agrees to publish his book, White Buildings sets terms. Typed Letter Signed (carbon). 1p., 27.6cm.
  62. 1926, 20 July: [Crane, Harold Hart], Nueva Gerona, Isle of Pines, Cuba. To Liveright, Horace B[risbin], New York, N.Y. Thanks him for the "advance" on White Buildings sorry Eugene O'Neill couldn't do the introduction but is pleased with the selection of Allen Tate returns contract. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm.
  63. 1926, 2 Sept.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Havana, Cuba. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Enjoys Havana is returning to the Isle of Pines tomorrow could he advance $50 until he receives next instalment from Otto Kahn. Autograph Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 510.
  64. 1927, 31 Mar.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Trying to make the best of a bad situation plans a trip to Northern Canada to see some mining property in which he has an interest his book has received much favorable comment from those among his friends "who are capable of understanding it." hopes he can come for a visit. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 542-543.
  65. 1927, 3 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Describes the Old Tavern at Welchfield, Ohio, and is considering buying it would like him to come and live there and help manage it. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 552, 554-555.
  66. 1927. 4 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Probably will withdraw offer to buy tavern at Welchfield sends two boxes of books and clothing. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm.
  67. 1927, 24 May: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Working on The Bridge hopes he secured property in Chagrin Falls as it seemed a better prospect than the Welchfield property encloses some rhymes written by "a number of us." Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 28.2cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 570-572.
  68. 1927, 31 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Just returned from Atlantic City secured the property in Chagrin Falls suffers from depression. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 574-575.
  69. 1927, 15 June: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Has found a lady to operate the Chagrin Falls property will call it Canary Cottage. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 581.
  70. 1927, 12 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Liked poem he sent better than his other work Canary Cottage work processing well sends $50.00. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 28cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 595-596.
  71. 1927, 6 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Hopes to have all ready at Canary Cottage by September 1 business has been terrible living at the Alcazar until he moves to Chagrin Falls sends check. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.5cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 602-603.
  72. 1927, 12 Aug.: [Crane, Harold Hart], Patterson, N.Y. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Writing a good deal but not much on The Bridge must get a job in the winter payment for his poems is slow. Typed Letter (fragment). 1p., 28cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 603-604.
  73. 1927, 2 Nov.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Brooklyn, N.Y. Sorry he missed him in New York glad he has found a "book" job business at Canary Cottage is good. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 28cm.
  74. 1928, 28 Mar.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Altadena, California. Starting new line of chocolates mother and grandmother in good health. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 28cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 617-618.
  75. 1928, 14 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Hollywood, California. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Writes about family matters, health attended Easter service in Hollywood Bowl looking for work as a writer in movie studios had pleasant talk with Otto Kahn. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 25.1cm.
  76. 1928, 18 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart]. Just returned from Detroit rose fever is bad Canary Cottage was "wisest move I ever made". Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 28cm.
  77. 1928, 18 July: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Returned from Detroit this morning gives details about the trip comments on death of Uncle Cassins had party for Fred and his friends at Canary Cottage sorry could not help him in his effort to purchase a house. Typed Letter (carbon) fragment. 1p., 28cm.
  78. 1928, 26 July: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Gaylordsville, Conn. To [Crane, Clarence A.] Sorry his hay fever is so bad is in poor financial condition trying to find a job. Typed Letter. 1p., 26cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 626-627.
  79. 1928, 2 Aug.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Croton-on-Hudson, [N.Y.] To [Crane, Clarence A.] Visiting the Habichts on his way to New York City thanks for check hopes for a place of his own some day. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 629-630.
  80. 1928, 8 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Crane, Harold [Hart], Patterson, N.Y. Knows he puts his writing first most people would get a job first and then write feels he should have a "trade" to fall back on when necessary. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm.
  81. 1929, 16 May: Liveright, Horace [Brisbin], New York, N.Y. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Collioure, Pyrenees-Oreintales, France. Eager to read the manuscript of The Bridge looking to a Spring 1930 publication. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 21.4cm.
  82. 1929, 22 Aug.: Schneider, Helen B., Erwinna, Pa. To Crane, [Clarence A.], Cleveland, Ohio. Sends clipping from Vanity Fair with picture of Hart Crane is interested to know that his White Buildings is used as a college poetry text. Autograph Letter Signed. 1p., 29.6cm.
  83. 1929, 26 Aug.: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Schneider, Helen B., Erwinna, Pa. Thanks her for sending clipping from Vanity Fair about his son. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 28cm.
  84. 1929, 20 Dec.: Horace Liveright, Inc., New York, N.Y. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Brooklyn, N.Y. Agreement to publish The Bridge sets terms. Typed Letter. 1p., 27.7cm.
  85. 1929, 23 Dec.: Crane, [Harold] Hart, New York, N.Y. To Horace Liveright Inc., New York, N.Y. Agrees with terms of publication of The Bridge. Typed Letter signed (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm.
  86. 1930, 13 Jan.: Horace Liveright, Inc. New York, N.Y. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Brooklyn, N.Y. Agreement for an option on his next book. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.7cm.
  87. 1930, 4 June: [Crane, Harold Hart]. To Winters, [Yvor], 1900-1968. Defends The Bridge against Winters' review in Poetry. Typed Letter (carbon). 3p., 27.7cm. Published in Pemberton, Vivian. "Hart Crane and Yvor Winters, Rebuttal and Review: A New Crane Letter." American Literature, Vol. 50, No. 2 (May, 1978), pp. 276-281.
  88. 1930, 23 Aug.: Roebling, Margaret Shippen, Bernardsville, New Jersey. To Crane, [Harold Hart]. Thanks him for sending a copy of The Bridge on behalf of Mr. Roebling, who is ill Mr. Roebling is reading the poem aloud to his family. Autograph Letter Signed. 3p., 16.8cm.
  89. 1930, 26 Nov.: Smith, T.B., Horace Liveright, Inc., New York, N.Y. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Brooklyn, N.Y. Sends $100 which can be charged against future work. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 21.5cm.
  90. [1931], 1 Apr.: [Crane, Harold] Hart, New York, N.Y. To [Crane] C[larence] A. Gives address of his bank in Mexico gives address of Katherine Anne Porter sails on the 29th gives other addresses. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 22.6cm.
  91. 1931, 1 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To [Crane, Harold Hart]. Concerned about sending money to Mexico by wire would like to know who Miss [Katherine Anne] Porter is with whom he is staying asks for [Arthur] Cages [i.e. Cazes] address. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 642-643.
  92. 1931, 15 May: Kahn, Otto [Herman], 1867-1934, Genoa, [Italy]. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Mexico City, [Mexico]. Glad he has decided to spend the year of his Guggenheim Fellowship in Mexico looks forward to literary results. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 28.2cm.
  93. 1931, 18 May: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Cazes, Hazel, Mexico. Has sent Harold some money sorry to hear Arthur Cazes is not in best of health business is poor putting a lot of effort into Canary Cottage. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 27.9cm.
  94. 1931, 2 June: [Crane, Clarence A.], Cleveland, Ohio. To Crane, Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, Mexico. Glad he is feeling better repaid Hazel Cazes for money she advanced with Guggenheim Fellowship he should be able to live on his income business is not good. Typed Letter. 1p., 27.9cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 643-644.
  95. 1931, 2 June: [Crane, Clarence A.] To Cazes, Hazel, Mexico. Writes about Harold's allowance he should be able to live on his allowance grateful for her kindness to Harold. Typed Letter (carbon). 2p., 27.7cm.
  96. 1931, 5 June: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, Mexico. To [Crane], C[larence] A. Will try to economize doesn't get much news from United States encloses a photograph [not present]. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 645-646
  97. 1931, 18 Aug.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Chagrin Falls, Ohio. To [Madden, N.] Byron. Thanks him for his attention to the business of his father's estate comments on his visit home. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm.
  98. 1931, 10 Sept.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, Mexico. To [Madden], Bess [Crane]. Thanks for forwarding mail hopes to hear from her plans walking trip to Tepozlan sends photographs [not present]. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.5cm.
  99. 1931, 20 Sept.: [Crane, Harold] Hart, Mixcoac, Mexico. To [Hurlbert], Helen [Hart] and Gooz [Hurlbert, Griswold]. Plans to travel more in Mexico describes what he would like to see was pleased to see them all again. Typed Letter Signed (photocopy). 2p., 28cm. Accompanied by a photocopy of an inscription: "For Helen and Griswold with best love always, from Hart Jan. '31" and a photocopy of a photograph.
  100. 1931, 12 Dec.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Describes the Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe Christmas always calls up his fondest memories. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 27.2cm.
  101. 1931, 16 Dec.: Ferrer, Antonio M., Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. To Crane, [Bessie Meachem]. Asks for Hart Crane's street and house number in Mixcoac and $10.00 for duty fees for the package she sent. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.5cm.
  102. 1931, 21 Dec.: [Crane, Bessie Meachem]. To Ferrer, Antonio M., Laredo, Texas. Encloses $10.00 duty fee and Hart Crane's address. Typed Letter (carbon). 1p., 28cm.
  103. [1931]: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Hasn't heard from her lately has she received his letters and photographs spent most of a week in Taxco where David Segneiros painted his portrait. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.4cm.
  104. [1931]: [Crane, Harold] Hart. To [Crane, Clarence A. and Bessie Meachem]. Describes life in Katherine Anne Porter's villa pleasure to work there he is loved in Mexico and is meeting all the poets, editors and scholars parts of The Bridge and White Buildings are being translated into Spanish. Typed Letter Signed (fragment). 1p., 27.2cm.
  105. 1932, 9 Jan.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Enjoying the boxes she sent describes visit with Peggy Cowley in Taxco. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 27.2cm. Accompanied by a copy of this letter.
  106. 1932, 24 Jan.: [Crane, Harold] Hart, Taxco, Mexico. To Crane Chocolate Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Credit letters not good at local banks wire $100.00. Telegram. 1p., 16.4cm.
  107. 1932, 5 Feb.: [Crane, Harold] Hart, Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane] Bess[ie Meachem]. Describes money situation seems her judgement on business matters is good hopes he can begin to draw from the estate in April. Typed Letter (copy). 1p., 26cm.
  108. [1932], [17 Feb.]: [Crane], Harold [Hart]. To [Crane, Bessie Meachem]. Confesses he has fallen in love with Peggy Cowley discusses financial matters sends greetings to members of the family. Typed Letter Signed (fragment). 2p., 27.6cm. Published in Weber, B., ed. Letters of Hart Crane, 1916-1932, New York, 1952, p. 402-403.
  109. 1932, 8 Mar.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Describes Puebla where he and Peggy Cowley have been visiting discusses his allowance working on a new poem thinks of her and the family by the fireplace in Canary Cottage went to a tea given for the new Guggenheim scholars who are in Mexico. Typed Letter Signed. 2 p., 27.7cm. Published in Lewis, T.S.W., ed. Letters of Hart Crane and His Family. New York, 1974, p. 650-652.
  110. 1932, 15 Mar.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. He and Peggy Cowley argued over money he "misunderstood and misinterpreted Peggy's character quite badly" is in favor of liquidation [of the estate]. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm.
  111. 1932, 15 Mar.: Crane, Harold H[art], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To Madden, N. Byron, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses the Crane Chocolate Company and agrees to its liquidation. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 27.7cm.
  112. 1932, 1 Apr.: Crane, [Harold] Hart, Mexico City, [Mexico]. To Crane, [Mrs.] C.A. [Bessie Meachem], Cleveland, Ohio. No word in weeks no check cannot pay bills. Telegram. 1p., 16.4cm
  113. 1932, 2 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Shocked to learn [of an automobile accident] glad to know money is on the way. Typed Letter Signed. 1p., 27.7cm.
  114. 1932, 7 Apr.: [Crane], Harold [Hart], Mixcoac, [Mexico]. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Received her letter about the [automobile] accident no money has yet reached his bank other money matters. Autograph Letter Signed (photocopy). 2p., 27.9cm. Accompanied by a photocopy of a letter to Vivian H. Pemberton from Stuart Bennett of Sotheby Parke Bernet in New York, giving the value of this letter and a copy of White Buildings.
  115. [1932?], 17 Apr.: Cowley, Peggy Baird. To Crane, [Grace Hart]. Hart Crane is quite sick but expects to sail for the United States on April 24 she is going on the same boat. Autograph Letter Signed. 2p., 27.7cm.
  116. 1932, 18 Apr.: [Crane, Harold] Hart, Mexico City, Mexico. To Crane, Mrs. C.A. [Bessie Meachem], Cleveland, Ohio. Needs $125.00 more to sail. Telegram. 1p., 16.1cm.
  117. [1932], [Apr.]: [Crane], Bessie [Meachem]. To Crane, [Harold] Hart, Mixcoac, Mexico. Mailing check today describes automobile accident. Telegram. 1p., 17.7cm.
  118. [1932?], 21 June: [Cowley], Peggy, Patterson, N.Y. To [Crane], Bess[ie Meachem]. Thanks her for pictures of Hart Crane his books were to have been shipped from Mexico gave two things which belonged to Hart Crane to friends of his has many of his manuscripts, letters, and some photographs which she will send to his mother. Typed Letter Signed. 2p., 27.6cm.
  119. Undated: Hart Crane photograph. Inscribed "For Bess and C.A. from Harold, and 'Heart'."

Box 1A
Folder -- Contents

  1. Clippings: Hart Crane and family, 1916-1987
  2. Crane family deeds, legal and financial documents, 1891-1910
    Custodial History: This material was formerly owned by Hart Crane's cousins Clara and Jeanette Risdon and was later given to Vivian Pemberton.
  3. Crane family letters, 1898
    Custodial History: This material was formerly owned by Hart Crane's cousins Clara and Jeanette Risdon and was later given to Vivian Pemberton.
  4. Crane family history and genealogy, 1989 1947 undated
  5. Film: Hart Crane - The Broken Tower: Clippings, 1988
  6. Film: Hart Crane - The Broken Tower: Script, 1984
  7. Reel-to-reel audiotape: The Last Days of Hart Crane, WBAI Public Radio, 1961
    Restrictions on Use: The content of this tape may not be duplicated or re-broadcast without permission of copyright holder(s).
  8. Reel-to-reel audiotape: Christmas Greetings by Helen Hart Hurlbert , undated
  9. Reel-to-reel audiotape: Tribune Musical Christmas Card by Helen Hart Hurlbert, undated
  10. Zell Hart Deming tribute, undated

Box 1B
Contents

  1. Photoalbum, undated
    Scope and Content: According to a typewritten note included with album, "Old Crane family album (INCOMPLETE: all photographs of family members have been removed). Trip to New York and New England photographs, including one of THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE."

Series 3: Hart Crane and family artifacts

Scope and Content: Series 3 includes objects (artifacts) belonging to the Crane family.

Acquisition Information: Unless otherwise specified, items in this series were donated by Vivian H. Pemberton.


James Franco Q & A: His Film on Tortured Gay Poet Hart Crane

One has to wonder when James Franco ever sleeps. Hollywood’s most educated thespian — perhaps best-known for his Oscar-nominated turn as the guy who cut off his own arm in Danny Boyle’s “127 Hours” – has famously juggled acting on soap operas and in blockbusters (think Rupert Wyatt’s upcoming “Rise of the Apes”) with doctoral studies in English and film at Yale, hosting the Academy Awards, creating art exhibitions, albums, a short story collection, conceptual and visual art. In Los Angeles on June 20, he’ll unveil his latest endeavor – directing and starring in an experimental biopic of the tortured, gay American poet Hart Crane – at the Los Angeles Film Festival, which runs from June 16-26. (UPDATE: Here’s an account of the festival event by the Journal’s Ryan Torok.)

A mustachioed Franco portrays Crane (1899-1932), who emerged on the scene with his Brooklyn-bridge epic, “The Bridge,” yet agonized over ever written word—even as he ferociously chased sailors, and was “incredibly comfortable with his sexuality,” Franco said by phone. But booze, brawls and depression took its toll on the poet, whose last work, “The Broken Tower,” chronicles his single heterosexual affair. Not long thereafter, when Hart was 32 – just a year younger than Franco – he jumped from a boat into the Gulf of Mexico and drowned.

Franco’s black-and-white film captures Hart’s brief, burning life in 12 “voyages,” or chapters, that merge verbal and visual imagery. It’s a stream-of-consciousness telling of Hart’s early years as the rebellious son of a wealthy Cleveland businessman his sojourns through New York, Cuba and Paris his torrid affair with a ship’s purser named Emil Opffer (Michael Shannon) his manic highs and suicidal lows and of course, his unapologetic love of men. The sex scenes, are, accordingly, explicit, with Franco-as-Hart ebulliently performing fellatio on what appears to be an impressive phallus, or ecstatic as he is topped during anal sex.

The idea for the film began as Franco was reading Paul Mariani’s biography of Crane, also titled “The Broken Tower,” on the set of the 2002 film, “Sonny” (Franco played a male prostitute who was pimped out by his mother). “I suppose it was that Crane had the quintessential tortured artist’s life,” Franco said of why he was drawn to the material. “He was trying to write in a way that was atypical for his time he was not understood by most of his peers he was struggling both with his financial circumstances and within himself to produce his work. He drank, he had lots of sex, he had one great, if short-lived, love. And so I thought, ‘That’s a story that lends itself to a film, easier than a story about someone like James Joyce, [who] wasn’t as readily dramatic or tragic. Although it could be done, it’s not quite the same kind of tortured life.”

Franco—who has appeared in the Spider-Man franchise and opposite Julia Roberts in “Eat Pray Love”—began “The Broken Tower” as his thesis project at New York University’s film school, and eventually decided to star in it himself. “He has made a film about Hart Cane, the visionary, but also about the hard life of Hart Crane, as a gay man, not just gay, but a wolf, really, going after sailors,” Mariani told The Chronicle of Higher Education. “And also his heavy drinking, despondency and proneness to suicide.”

The graphic gay sex scenes will no doubt be fodder for those who love to speculate as to Franco’s sexuality, given that he has also played the lover of congressman Harvey Milk in “Milk” and the Jewish beat poet Allen Ginsberg in “Howl.” He’ll release a vinyl album in July with his frequent collaborator, the drag queen Kalup Lindsay, and he once famously teased a reporter, “Maybe I’m just gay.”

Franco, who reportedly has had the same girlfriend, the actress Ahna O’Reilly, since 2006, appears to enjoy provocative intellectual fare as much as occasionally playing the provocateur.

Here are excerpts from the rest of our interview:

NPM: What was it like for Crane as a homosexual in the 1920s?

JF: He didn’t seem to have ever been troubled by being gay at a time when it must’ve been much more difficult to come out. But aside from not telling his parents, I think he was pretty open about it among his friends. So that didn’t seem to be a big issue, although he had that strange, unique-for-him, heterosexual relationship with Peggy Crowley, while he was in Mexico. But for me that didn’t feel like it was Crane renouncing the way he had lived before or that he had been struggling with being straight his whole life. Somehow he just came together with Peggy at a time when he was very emotionally needy. She was someone he felt really close to, and so it was more just coming together with a person it wasn’t really about being troubled over being gay.

NPM: Why do you think Crane jumped from that boat to his death?

JF: In the film, I tried to show a lot of the different contributing factors that might have led to his suicide. Who really knows what the one trigger was, but there were a list of possibilities: His parents sounded like they had a really horrible marriage he was a teenager when he tried to kill himself for the first time, and had a history of suicide attempts from a very young age. While I (again) don’t think he was troubled over being gay, his whole life he had trouble with drinking and he was probably an alcoholic. Then his father was a millionaire from selling chocolate, but he never really gave Hart any support. I think that Crane had been waiting his whole life, first to inherit money from his grandmother, and then from his father, and when that didn’t happen it was a big blow.

In addition, it was so difficult for him to write—I mean it just took years and years and YEARS—and his friends had turned on him with [negative reviews]. So there he was going back to a New York that had just fallen into the Depression he had been trying to write some epic about the history of Mexico, and felt like he couldn’t write anymore. He had just written a poem that nobody cared about he had no money and no inheritance he was going to have to find a job in advertising again, which to an extremely sensitive person like him was just hell. And maybe he wouldn’t even get that kind of job because it was the Depression. So he was just going back to a place where he really had nothing to look forward to but misery.

NPM: Are there ways in which you identify with Crane, as an artist and a person?

JF: I suppose there are things that I both admire and, in some ways, think he maybe went too far with. He was an autodidact he didn’t go to college, but he was always searching, and his letters are famous for engaging in these very pure and intense dialogues about his work. But he went too far in that he was very stubborn. He knew his work was difficult, and that he was going to turn off most readers. But he felt that if he had six good readers that was enough for him.

I am in a business where that’s harder to do, because movies cost more money, so you need more than six viewers to make the money back, or nobody is going to invest in your movies anymore. So I guess I admire his attitude, but when I’m dealing with something like a film, I try – depending on the subject – to walk a middle ground. The film, “The Broken Tower” is not going to be a blockbuster, but I’ve made it for not a ton of money – I made it for a very responsible amount of money, because I know what it is. But I’ve also tried to be true my subject and not water down or try to make it more entertaining just for entertaining’s sake.

NPM: Speaking of popular entertainment, you’re starring as a (human) scientist in the “Planet of the Apes” prequel, “Rise of the Planet of the Apes” (to hit theaters on Aug. 5). Do you view the original “Planet of the Apes” films as an allegory of race relations in America? And was the fact that these films transcend their science fiction genre part of the draw for you?

JF: Yes, it was. I wasn’t a “Planet of the Apes” aficionado but I went back and looked at the older movies. The setup for the original films was extremely well done because the apes were great figures to compare ourselves to. They look different but are as intelligent as humans, so the underlying premise is that these two cultures are not very different at all, yet they are fighting and each thinks it’s superior to the other.

Our film doesn’t really delve into race relations, because it’s an origin story, so the apes are only starting to grow into their intelligent versions. They’re in the transition stage, so the dynamic between the apes and the humans is very different than in any of the older films. I really don’t think there’s a strong racial bent in our film it’s more about the dangers of experimentation and the relationship between human and animals than anything else.

NPM: The last time I spoke with you, you mentioned you’d like to have a bar mitzvah when you have the time. [Franco’s mother, Betsy Franco, is Jewish his father is not.]

JF: Yes, I would like to. I would have appreciated having gone to Hebrew school and having that history, just because I love learning and I had so many friends who were going to Hebrew school and having bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs when I was growing up. At the time, I didn’t envy them, because none of them seemed to really enjoy it it was a chore [laughs]. My parents were all over the map in terms of religion, but maybe it was good that nothing was imposed on me too strongly because there were so many different influences. But I am very interested in learning more about my Jewish heritage.


Harold H. Crane

Harold H. Crane, also known as Hart Crane, was a well-known twentieth-century American poet.

Harold Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, on July 21, 1899. Crane described his childhood as being unpleasant. His father, the original producer of Lifesaver candy, was a confectioner in Cleveland and his mother was very doting and domineering. In 1916, Crane dropped out of high school in Ohio and moved to New York City. Arriving in New York, Crane worked as an advertising salesman for a poetry magazine. He returned to Cleveland because he was unable to financially support himself in New York.

Returning to Ohio, Crane worked as a reporter for Cleveland’s The Plain Dealer, as a candy salesman in Akron, and as a laborer in his father's factory. When he published his first poem, "My Grandmother's Love Letters," in a literary magazine, he returned to New York City. However, Crane would return to Ohio on several occasions to take jobs to finance other journeys to New York. In 1926, Crane published a collection of his poems in an anthology entitled White Buildings. Crane's poetry in this collection was inspired by his time in New York. After the publication of White Buildings, Crane was recognized as one of America's leading poets. He could be seen socializing with other prominent writers, including Katherine Ann Porter and E.E. Cummings.

After the success of his first book, Crane began to draft a series of poems based on the Brooklyn Bridge. Since he first arrived in New York in 1916, the bridge had fascinated him. Over the next several years, Crane dedicated himself to immortalizing the Brooklyn Bridge in poetry. During this period, he survived on donations from art patrons. He traveled to Europe but was forced to come back to the United States following a brawl in Paris, France. In 1930, Crane completed his epic poem and published it under the title "The Bridge." This poem won Poetry Magazine's highest prize and helped Crane attain a Guggenheim fellowship.

Using the funds from the Guggenheim fellowship, Crane traveled to Mexico and began to write a new epic poem on Hernan Cortes's campaign against the Aztec Indians during the 1510s and 1520s. His funds exhausted, Crane decided to return to the United States. On April 27, 1932, while onboard a ship traveling through the Gulf of Mexico to New York City, Crane jumped overboard and died. He was thirty-two years old.

Today, Hart Crane is recognized as one of the most important and influential American poets of his era.


Hart Crane

The poet and author, one of the "Lost Generation" of writers, lived here while supporting himself as an advertising writer. Crane's poems "White Buildings" and "The Bridge" gave harmonious expression to the chaos of urban life.

Erected by Historic Landmarks Preservation Center.

Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Arts, Letters, Music. In addition, it is included in the New York, New York City Historic Landmarks Preservation Center Cultural Medallions series list.

Location. 40° 44.093′ N, 74° 0.261′ W. Marker is in New York, New York, in New York County. Marker is on Charles Street east of Bleecker Street, on the left when traveling east. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 79 Charles Street, New York NY 10014, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Sinclair Lewis (within shouting distance of this marker) Woody Guthrie (within shouting distance of this marker) 242 & 244 West 4th Street (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Samuel Whittemore House (about 400 feet away) The Family (about 500 feet away) Hartwick Seminary (about 500 feet away) St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church

(about 500 feet away) Greenwich Village Historic District (about 600 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in New York.

Also see . . . Hart Crane. Wikipedia biography. (Submitted on April 10, 2020, by Larry Gertner of New York, New York.)


LIFE SAVERS

LIFE SAVERS, the brightly colored ring-shaped candies, were developed by Cleveland chocolate manufacturer Clarence A. Crane, father of poet HART CRANE. Clarence Crane began making and selling chocolate candy in Cleveland in Apr. 1891. The following year he introduced "Crane's Peppermint Life Savers" to bolster his slow chocolate sales during the summer. In 1913 he sold his Life Saver business and trademark for $2,900 to New York businessmen Edward J. Noble and J. Roy Allen, who then formed the Mint Prods. Co. to market the peppermint candies Crane supplied. Crane shipped the candies in cardboard tubes which absorbed the candies' flavor, and business was poor until Noble designed a new foil package. By 1915 Noble and Allen were producing Life Savers themselves and no longer used Crane as a supplier. Although Crane did not benefit from their later success, his chocolate business continued to expand. The Crane Chocolate Co. was incorporated in 1916 and by 1921 it had sales outlets in New York and Kansas City. Crane himself embarked upon several other business ventures before his death on 6 July 1931.


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