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Shrewsbury School was founded by King Edward VI in 1552 and augmented by Queen Elizabeth in 1571. In 1882 the school moved from the centre of the town to its present site overlooking the town and the River Seven.
The Brothers' association with Worcester dates back to September 1894, when having responded to the invitation of pastor Monsignor Griffin, a pioneer community of four Xaverians arrived to staff Saint John‘s Parish School for Boys on Temple Street, teaching the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades along with the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur.
The school was housed in what was commonly referred to as the "Old Building." The cornerstone of this structure, dated August 16, 1891, was moved to the Shrewsbury campus when the Temple Street building was demolished in the mid-1970‘s. In 1898, a three-year high school curriculum was established under the guidance of Brothers Alphonse Behan and Henry McGivern.
A fourth year was added in 1906, when the College of the Holy Cross ended their college prep program to concentrate solely on a college curriculum. In 1907, the first class to complete a four-year program of studies at Saint John‘s was graduated. They numbered seven strong! In 1909 the Brothers gave over the 4th and 5th grade teaching duties to the Sisters of Notre Dame. In 1925, they relinquished their connection with the grammar school with the opening of the "new" building on Temple Street.
In 1959, forty-four acres at the foot of West Main Street were purchased for the future home of Pioneer Field. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the new high school were held on November 14, 1959.
The first construction, a classroom building to accommodate sophomores, juniors and seniors, was completed in 1961. The freshmen continued their studies on Temple Street. In 1962, all classes completed their transition to the Shrewsbury campus and the school‘s name was once again changed to Saint John's High School. Temple Street continued to house Saint John's Grammar School until the mid 1970‘s.
In 1963 and 1964 a gym and cafeteria were added to the hillside campus along with a small dormitory building for teenagers interested in the Brothers’ vocation.
In 1969, the Juniorate closed and the building was renovated. Renamed "Flavian Hall", in memory of Brother Flavian Coughlin who taught at Temple Street from 1904-1908 and died as a member of the Xaverian Community in 1974, the renovation provided the Shrewsbury campus with eleven additional classrooms.
Into the 21st Century
The year 2001 was an historic moment in the history of Saint John's High School when the Board of Trustees appointed the school's first lay headmaster, Mr. Michael Welch, and endorsed the appointment of its first lay principal, Mr. Stephen Gregory. The seeds of the Sponsorship Program were beginning to bear fruit. Honoring headmaster emeritus, Brother J. Conal Owens, for his thirty-five years of inspired leadership, the "Main Building" was fittingly renamed Conal Hall. In 2002, the Board of Trustees, seeking to update the existing facilities, approved the renovation of three rooms in the "Manor" (the former ‘Dunmorlan’ estate house) to relocate the Office of Alumni Affairs and the Office of Institutional Advancement. A much needed renovation of the gym and expansion of the existing locker room facilities were also undertaken. Renamed the Coaches Pavilion to honor Bob Devlin, Charlie Bibaud and Joe Lane, three legends in Pioneer sports, this beautiful athletic facility, with enhanced lighting and sound and new bleachers, a new playing surface and a new score board, will serve the needs of the Pioneers for generations to come.
In the ensuing years since 2006, with significant increases in the sacrifice and support of parents, alumni, and friends through an expanded Advancement Office, Saint John’s has continued to improve the program and enhance the facilities of the school as it seeks to fulfill its mission as a Xaverian and Catholic school.
Campus Ministry has grown in stature to become a central element in the lives of the students. Retreats on all levels, and service opportunities including Global Encounters throughout the United States as well as in Haiti and Ecuador, have added emphasis to the spiritual core of our mission.
Financial aid, necessary to ensure that we serve those students who have traditionally come to Saint John’s has exceeded $1 million dollars.
And finally, facilities upgrades and the addition of a beautiful 48,000 square foot Founders Hall in 2015 complete the Strategic Plan and beyond that the Board of Trustees and former Headmaster Michael Welch oversaw.
From the Campus Green to a brand new tennis venue and a stunningly renovated Pioneer Baseball field, from a revamped Admissions, Counseling, and Business wing in Xaverian Brothers Hall to a completely updated Conal Hall (Main Building), no part of the campus of Saint John’s has been untouched.
COLLEGES OF SECULAR CANONS
35. THE COLLEGE OF ST. CHAD, SHREWSBURY
The church of St. Chad appears in Domesday Book as a well-endowed and already ancient institution, closely linked with the bishopric of Lichfield. In the late Anglo-Saxon period the church held 1½ hide in Shrewsbury and 5½ hides in the neighbouring townships of Bicton, Onslow, Little Rossall, and Shelton. (fn. 1) It also possessed more distant estates, comprising 8 hides, at Broughton and Yorton to the north of Shrewsbury, Little Eton in Pitchford, Marton in Chirbury, and Wrentnall in Pulverbatch. (fn. 2) Domesday records that the bishop was its overlord at Shelton. (fn. 3) In the 13th century the college's estate at Broughton was also said to be of the bishop's fee (fn. 4) and, despite the silence of Domesday, it is likely that most of the other St. Chad's manors had at one time been the bishop's demesne manors. Other indications of close ties between church and bishop are not lacking in Domesday. An obscure reference to the 16 canons whom the bishop 'used to have' in Shrewsbury (fn. 5) was plausibly interpreted by Eyton (fn. 6) as a reference to the canons of St. Chad. They were said to be exempt from geld and the extent of their obligations to the bishop was not known in 1086. (fn. 7) Among the manors near Shrewsbury, which the bishop held in demesne in 1086, Betton was shortly afterwards granted to Shrewsbury Abbey, Crowmeole formed part of the original endowment of Buildwas Abbey, and Longner-on-Severn passed into lay ownership. (fn. 8) Tithes from these manors, however, continued to be paid to St. Chad's. (fn. 9) In addition the church received tithes from Welbatch and Woodcote, manors which were already in lay hands by 1086 (fn. 10) but may once have formed part of the bishop's estate, and from Horton. (fn. 11)
All the manors in or near Shrewsbury held at Domesday by the bishop or by the church of St. Chad were later accounted part of St. Chad's parish. Among the church's more distant manors Little Eton was ceded to Pitchford when that parish was created in the early 12th century, (fn. 12) but it was a member of the Liberties of Shrewsbury until the close of the Middle Ages. (fn. 13) Broughton (with Yorton) remained a chapelry of St. Chad until the Dissolution. (fn. 14) The ancient parish included the greater part of Shrewsbury within the walls. To the west it included a compact group of townships to the south of the Severn, stretching from Frankwell to the boundary of the manor of Ford and broken only by detached portions of Shrewsbury St. Alkmund and St. Julian. (fn. 15) Welbatch to the west of the town and Betton to the east were detached portions of the parish of St. Chad, but it is possible that Betton became so detached only through the appropriation of the eastern suburbs of Shrewsbury by Shrewsbury Abbey.
The size and structure of the parish suggests that St. Chad's was the oldest of the Shrewsbury churches, but its foundation date and the date at which it became collegiate are alike unknown. It is supposed to have been founded not more than a century after the death of St. Chad, first bishop of Lichfield. (fn. 16) Archaeological evidence seems to confirm this, (fn. 17) and medieval Welsh literary evidence suggests that the bishops of Lichfield may have obtained possession of the endowments of a Celtic church at Shrewsbury. (fn. 18)
There are indications in Domesday Book that the college of canons which had served St. Chad's in Anglo-Saxon times had ceased to exist. Canons, presumably of St. Chad's, are mentioned only once and then in the past tense (fn. 19) elsewhere the institution is referred to either as 'St. Chad' or as a 'church'. The 16 canons may once have lived in the 16 houses which the bishop held in Shrewsbury in 1086, but at that time these houses were occupied by burgesses. (fn. 20) Such circumstances would make it easier to explain the evident shrinkage of the college estates in the generation before Domesday, when Wrentnall had been lost by means which the jurors could not or would not specify (fn. 21) and at least three other manors had passed into the possession of lay under-tenants. (fn. 22)
The college was reorganized, if not refounded, by an early-12th-century bishop of Chester and thereafter consisted of a dean and ten canons, all in the bishop's collation. Although the church was said to have been dedicated during the episcopate of Walter Durdent (1149-59), (fn. 23) who in 1152 obtained a papal bull confirming his rights as patron, (fn. 24) the change is more likely to have been made in the time of Durdent's predecessor, Roger de Clinton (112948). Clinton was described as founder of St. Chad's in 1546. (fn. 25) He may well have seen fit to adjust the endowments of the college when he granted other parts of his mid-Shropshire estate to Buildwas Abbey c. 1135, (fn. 26) for by 1278 the college was in possession of 21 burgages in Shrewsbury which had formerly belonged to the bishop, including his dominicum hospicium. (fn. 27) Clinton may also have assigned to the college tithes from the former episcopal estates at Alkmere, Betton Strange, and Longner-on-Severn. At about the same time the chapel at Little Eton was converted into the church of the newly-created parish of Pitchford, but the great tithes of this portion of the Anglo-Saxon endowments of St. Chad's were reserved to the college. (fn. 28)
The endowments of the reconstituted college were more modest than those of the pre-Conquest foundation. They were valued at only £19 in 1291 (fn. 29) and there is little reason to suppose that any serious inroad had been made into the estate between the early 12th century and 1326, when it included the great tithes of Broughton and Yorton, Little Eton, and twelve townships within the ancient parish of St. Chad. Rents of 53s. 2d. a year were derived from property in Shrewsbury, Broughton and Yorton, Little Eton, Onslow, Little Rossall, and Shelton, but many of these were merely quit-rents and the only considerable landed property belonging to the college was a carucate and 37 a. at Shelton.
By 1326 the greater part of these endowments had been apportioned to the dean. He received all the tithes from seven townships, portions of tithes in four others, and 37s. 10d. in rents. The greater part of the Shelton estate also lay in his portion and he held a court twice yearly both for his tenants and for the canons'. Most of the canons drew their income from a single township — four of them from Yorton and three from Shelton. In addition each canon, with the dean, shared in a common fund, which included income from the great tithes of Horton and Little Eton, and each was entitled to oblations in the parish church on every eleventh week. (fn. 30)
No significant change was made in sources of income between 1326 and the Dissolution. The rise in the gross value of the college estate in this period was due to the endowment of obits and chantries, (fn. 31) which benefited the vicars choral and parish clergy rather than the canons. The total income of the dean and canons was said to be only £14 14s. 4d. in 1535, when the dean's portion was £8 and only one of the canons received more than £1 a year. (fn. 32) In 1546, when the gross income of the college was put at £38 6s. 8d., the share of the dean and canons had apparently risen to over £21. (fn. 33) Two valuations of 1548 conflict. In the earlier and more detailed the dean was said to receive £21 3s. 4d. and seven of the canons a total of £10 2s. 2d., while a further £18 12s. 10d. appears to have formed a common fund for the three remaining canons, the vicars choral, and other parish clergy. (fn. 34) The later valuation, like the earlier, gave a gross valuation of nearly £50 but put the dean's portion at only £10 and that of the ten canons at a total of £9 6s. 2d. (fn. 35)
Presumably one of the bishop's motives in reorganizing the college was to provide endowments for his diocesan officials, and, although positive evidence is largely lacking, many appointments to prebends at St. Chad's seem to have been so used until the end of the 13th century. Papal provisions were rare (fn. 36) and, although king's clerks were sometimes collated to prebends, such appointments were made only during vacancies of the see. (fn. 37)
The appointment of king's clerks reached notable proportions during the episcopates of Walter Langton (1296-1321) and Roger de Northburgh (1322-58), both of whom had begun their careers in the royal household. One of the first was Robert Peet, who was collated dean in the year of Langton's consecration. (fn. 38) Richard Abel, who secured a prebend at the age often in 1302 and became dean in 1323, was the son of a baron of the exchequer. (fn. 39) Three other deans and seven canons, collated between 1309 and 1334, are known to have been king's clerks. (fn. 40) Most of them, however, held their prebends for very short periods and at an early stage in their careers. Such appointments may well have been made on episcopal initiative, rather than through Crown pressure. They apparently ceased after 1334, for Northburgh preferred to use the prebends in his gift to provide for relatives, friends, and diocesan officials. In 1329 he had secured the deanery for his nephew Michael de Northburgh (fn. 41) and five other close relatives later obtained prebends. (fn. 42) Some half-dozen canons collated by the bishop between 1331 and 1350 came, like himself, from East Anglia (fn. 43) and two others were connected with the Northburghs of Northborough (Northants.). (fn. 44) At least seven other canons collated between 1334 and 1350 were or soon afterwards became prebendaries of Lichfield. (fn. 45)
A writ of prohibition of 1344 alleged that the college had been founded by former kings of England and that it was thus a royal free chapel. (fn. 46) This cannot, however, be accepted as evidence for a serious attempt by the Crown to obtain control of patronage. In issuing it the Crown seems to have aimed at revoking a papal provision to a prebend from which the alien canon William Vacce had been removed in 1337. (fn. 47) Claims of royal patronage were revived in 1375, when the king was alleged to have recovered the right to present to the deanery. (fn. 48) The bishop was summoned to answer for his contempt in refusing to appoint a Crown nominee but his kinsman, Robert of Stretton, who had already been collated to the deanery, was not in fact replaced. (fn. 49) In 1382 the Crown appointed two canons under papal dispensation (fn. 50) and in the following two decades was able to establish some control over the appointment of deans. The king's clerk, Nicholas Mocking, was nominated dean sede vacante in 1387. (fn. 51) Although this appointment did not take immediate effect, Mocking had become dean by 1392. (fn. 52) His successor, the king's clerk Ralph Repington, was nominated by the Crown in 1396. (fn. 53)
There is no indication of Crown interference in the appointment of deans or canons between 1399 and 1460. Repington was followed, possibly at his death in 1416, by the bishop's nephew Robert Catterick, (fn. 54) whose successor, Thomas Salisbury, was dean from 1436 to 1460 and Archdeacon of Salop for most of that period. (fn. 55) At least ten of the canons collated between 1405 and 1460 were prebendaries of Lichfield or held other office in the diocese. (fn. 56) Clergy of the latter type continued to preponderate at St. Chad's until the 1530s, after which date most vacancies seem to have been filled by local men without connexions with either the bishop or the Crown. King's clerks reappeared at St. Chad's in 1460, when Richard Shirburn, formerly almoner to Richard, Duke of York, was collated to a prebend, (fn. 57) and the king's chaplain, Thomas St. Just, was appointed dean. (fn. 58) The latter, who had been a fellow of King's Hall, Cambridge, was presumably responsible for the appointment of two other fellows of that college to vacant prebends in 1466. (fn. 59) His successor, another Cambridge man, was the king's secretary Oliver King. (fn. 60) King was followed by two prominent scholars, William Wrexham (first Principal of Brasenose College) (fn. 61) and Henry Hornby (Master of Peterhouse). (fn. 62) George Lee, the last dean of St. Chad's, represented a reversion to an earlier form of patronage, for he was the bishop's brother. (fn. 63)
It is unlikely that more than one or two of the canons ever resided in the college at any time in or after the 13th century. A dean, c. 1200, and two 13thcentury canons were closely enough connected with the church to endow obits there, but this custom seems to have lapsed after 1293. (fn. 64) Prebendal houses appear commonly to have been leased to laymen or to clergy unconnected with the college at least four of them were occupied by laymen in 1278. (fn. 65) One house was occupied, c. 1350, by the married clerk, Richard de Watington. (fn. 66) In the early 15th century at least one canon seems usually to have resided. John Hopton (canon 1394-1425) (fn. 67) was apparently resident in the 1390s (fn. 68) and in 1417. (fn. 69) His chamber was assigned in 1425 to his successor John Pecton, (fn. 70) who was dispensed from residence in 1432. (fn. 71) Mandates to induct to a vacant prebend were addressed to two other canons in the 1430s (fn. 72) and to another in 1466, (fn. 73) but this function was normally performed in the 15th century, as in the 14th, by the sacristan. Three canons attended the bishop's visitation in 1524. (fn. 74)
Routine service of the church was the responsibility of minor clergy styled indifferently sacristans, vicars, or curates. (fn. 75) It was implied in 1546 that the original foundation had provided for two parish priests to celebrate daily in the church (fn. 76) and this is known to have been the case in the mid 14th century, when John Beget and Ralph de Kington were the sacristans. (fn. 77) At the Dissolution, when the two sacristans received stipends of £6 13s. 4d. and £4 6s. 8d. respectively, a Welsh priest was also employed during Lent. (fn. 78)
Rather more is known about the vicars choral. They are first recorded in 1326 (fn. 79) but, if developments at St. Chad's followed the pattern of those at Lichfield, it may be concluded that vicars choral had existed there since the later 12th century. (fn. 80) St. Chad's had eight vicars choral in 1417 (fn. 81) and the same number in 1524, (fn. 82) but there were only four by 1548. (fn. 83) In 1326 their only formal income appears to have been that derived from the tithes of 14 a. of demesne at Betton Strange (fn. 84) and their share in the college's resources was still considered inadequate in 1498. (fn. 85) Bishop Arundel, who then commended the vicars choral for their assiduous performance of daily services in the church, directed that in future each canon should pay the vicars choral half his first year's income. (fn. 86) Their endowments were further increased by Arundel's successor Geoffrey Blythe, who presented them with a gilt chalice and obtained for them a 99-year lease of Meole Brace rectory from Wigmore Abbey, and in 1529 the vicars choral established an annual obit in his honour. (fn. 87) By the 1540s, when the canons' portions had apparently been adjusted to produce a larger common fund in which both canons and vicars choral had a share, the latter were also entitled exclusively to the tithes of Whitley and Welbatch. (fn. 88)
A more profitable source of income for the vicars choral was that provided by the endowments of numerous chantries and obits in the parish church, which it was their principal duty to serve. The earliest of the chantries was probably Baldwin's chantry, in existence by 1406 but not recorded at the Dissolution, which may have been founded by one John Baldwin (d. 1324). (fn. 89) The chantry of Our Lady, management of which was transferred to the Weavers' Guild in 1469, (fn. 90) received its original endowment in 1339 from John of Prees, who had undertaken to provide statuary in 1330. (fn. 91) The Mercers' Guild chantry similarly began as a private chantry (fn. 92) those of the Tailors and Skinners and of the Shoemakers probably did so also. (fn. 93) By 1548, when the four guild chantries had a net income of £11 13s. 9d. a year, three of them were served by vicars choral and the fourth by one of the canons. (fn. 94) A further £4 1s. 2d. was then derived from obits. (fn. 95)
The college was dissolved in June 1548, when pensions totalling £16 11s. 6d. were assigned to the dean and canons and £8 6s. 8d. to the vicars choral. (fn. 96) The whole estate was then leased to George Beeston. (fn. 97) The site of the college and the tithes of a farm at Crowmeole were sold to John Southcote and Henry Chiverton in June 1549. (fn. 98) In the following month the endowments of the Mercers', Tailors', and Weavers' chantries were granted to Robert Wood, (fn. 99) and in January 1550 those of the Shoemakers' chantry to William Fountayne and Richard Mayne. (fn. 100) By the latter date the college estate in Shrewsbury and the lease of Meole Brace rectory had been acquired by Hugh Edwards and William Knight. (fn. 101) Tithes in Bicton, Frankwell, Shelton, Woodcote and Horton, and Whitley and Welbatch were granted to Shrewsbury corporation as part of the endowment of Shrewsbury School in 1552. (fn. 102) The remainder of the college estate, including the advowson of St. Chad's and its chapelries, was granted to Sir Christopher Hatton in 1579. (fn. 103)
The site of the college lies to the west of the former St. Chad's church and includes College Court, a complex of buildings set round a quadrangle, the east range forming the western boundary of the churchyard. Of the church itself, which was cruciform and 168 feet long, (fn. 104) only the ruins of the crossing, dating from c. 1200, and a later chancel chapel survive. The remainder disappeared after much of the building had collapsed in the late 18th century and a new parish church had been built on a different site. (fn. 105)
As in other early medieval colleges of secular priests a separate house and garden were originally attached to each of the prebends of St. Chad's. The houses were said to stand next to the church in 1326 (fn. 106) and several prebends still included pieces of garden ground at the Dissolution. (fn. 107) The exact disposition of the canons' houses is uncertain. A few courses of red sandstone in a wall facing the west side of the churchyard are unlikely to be later than the 13th century and may mark the eastern extremity of the domestic buildings. A covered passage formerly led from this part of the college to the church, and there was some indication of a cloister on the south side of the church itself before destruction. (fn. 108) One of the canons, c. 1425, lived in a chamber over the college gateway, (fn. 109) which is known to have stood north of College Court, on the site of its present entrance from College Hill. (fn. 110)
It is not improbable that the precinct originally extended as far west as Swan Hill. (fn. 111) By the Dissolution, however, the area seems to have been restricted to the present College Court, together with the gardens belonging to the houses on its south side, which still extend nearly to the town wall. Priests' Lane, of which only a short section remains in use, seems to have led southwards from College Hill to Chad Lode (later Crescent Lane), (fn. 112) thus marking the western boundary of the more restricted site. The principal buildings in this area were probably the communal quarters of the vicars choral who were said to be living in a common house in 1498. (fn. 113)
Shortly after the Dissolution the site of the college was acquired by Hugh Edwards. (fn. 114) His son Thomas, who was living there c. 1600, (fn. 115) may have been responsible for building a timber-framed range (later the north wing of Clive House) in Priests Lane. No radical alterations, however, appear to have taken place until after 1752 when the property was bought by John Oliver. He remodelled the south range of College Court as three substantial Georgian houses, cased in red brick (fn. 116) as St. Winefride's Convent, No. 3 College Court, and Clive House, they survived in 1969. Other buildings in the court were added in the 19th century. A description of the site before the alterations of c. 1752, based on the memories of a lady who had lived there, was published about 70 years later. An ancient structure of red sandstone was said to have enclosed a small court which was separated from the street (College Hill) by a high wall with a gateway of which the superstructure had disappeared. A long range on the south side had a porch and lobby leading to a great chamber containing a raised dais and an oriel window with roundels of stained glass other chambers adjoined it. (fn. 117) Some part of these structures may be represented by the surviving remains of a timber-framed range which is incorporated in the 18th-century buildings. It runs north and south at right angles to and at the junction of Clive House and No. 3 College Court. A partition near the south end of the range has moulded studs and two finely carved door-heads. The roof truss above is intact as are two more trusses to the north of it. In the corridor and kitchen of No. 3 are angle posts marking the site of two further timber-framed bays. The surviving trusses have slightly-cambered tie-and collar-beams, through purlins, and no trace of cusping, suggesting that the range was built in the very late 15th or early 16th century. It is possible that the south partition, where the carved doorheads are of similar date, represents the service end of a communal hall of the vicars choral newly built following efforts made after 1498 to increase their endowments. The upper end of the hall, with its dais and oriel, may well have survived until the rebuilding scheme of c. 1752 during which the south end of the timber-framed range appears to have been demolished.
When the Girls’ Day School Trust (known then as the Girls Public Day School Company) proposed the opening of an undemoniational school in Shrewsbury, run by women and teaching girls, “feeling ran high in the old town of Shrewsbury in the early spring of 1885, on the question of the establishment of a public school for girls”.
Many parents objected to the idea of the mingling of pupils of different social status, and could not be persuaded that manners and character would not suffer in a school open to children of all respectable people who could pay the fees.
The Vicar of St. Mary’s, Archdeacon Lloyd, whose curates were the present Bishop of London, and Mr Abraham, who became Bishop of Derby, threw the weight of this influence against the Company, and he had a formidable party behind him. On the other side were Dr Calvert, E. Bather of the Day House, Shrewsbury, the Rev. Henry Bather, Vicar of Meole Brace, and Rev. C. Churchill and other Masters of Shrewsbury School, Sir Richard Green Price, Dr Bund, Dr Rope, Dr Eddowes, Major Coldwell, and many more, who carried the day in the end.”
From a letter by Miss Edith Cannings (the first Head of SHS), 1922, on the formation of Shrewsbury High School.
Late in 1884 a second public meeting was held in Shrewsbury to discuss the possibility of opening a new girls’ school. It was decided by a vote of 37 to 27, to ask the Girls’ Public Day School Company, rather than the Church Schools’ Company, to open a High School for girls. However, public opinion on this decision was split as many felt that scripture could not properly be taught in a non-denominational school, and a petition against the whole idea was organised. Local opposition soon died down though, and on January 7th 1885, a local newspaper reported that the new Shrewsbury High School for Girls would open later that year. The paper expressed the opinion that:
“… this attempt to improve the educational status of our county town and adjacent district will meet with the warmest sympathy and encouragement from all who value their daughters’ education and wish to see them fitted to take their place among the foremost ranks of their fellow countrywomen.”
Shrewsbury High School was opened on 5 May 1885 in Clive House on College Hill under the headship of Miss Edith Cannings (pictured), promoted from the staff of Croydon High School. Thirty-one girls were in the senior school, with nineteen juniors admitted a week later. The fees were around two pounds per term for Juniors and five pounds per term for Seniors. Local advertisements stated that the school “aims at a wide and comprehensive scope of intelligent advancement and does not risk offending individual opinions either in religious or civil policy”.
At the end of May 1885, a fire was discovered in two small rooms at the centre of Clive House. The fire was discovered by Dr Eddowes, who owned the house and contacted the police and fire brigade, who brought their hose. Sometime was lost in trying to find a hydrant, but eventually the hose was connected to the hydrants near the Admiral Benbow and Princess Street. In the meantime, buckets of water were used and much damage to the rooms was caused by both fire and water.
Miss Cannings lived in the attic rooms of Clive House, with her dog Hako, who could often be found tied up in a yard close to the window of the staffroom, to which he naturally objected with persistent barking. A long arm would be seen appearing from out the window, and a ‘hush, hush, Hako’, which gradually became a proverbial saying in the staffroom.
Shrewsbury High School staff, 1887, left.
In December of 1885 the school’s first concert for pupils, parents and friends of the High School was held at the Music Hall. There was a very large attendance to listen to a selection of part songs and recitations. The programme included the part song, “Ever Joyous”, the carol, “King Wenceslas” and the recitation, “Quarrelsome Kittens”. According to a newspaper report, “the audience showed their appreciation by loud applause. Much interest, not to say amusement, was occasioned by the performances of the younger scholars, some of whom, despite their tender years, showed an aptitude for learning.” (Eddowes Journal, 1885)
The growing school soon demanded more space and in 1886 the new ‘Iron House’, less respectfully known as ‘The Tin Tabernacle’ was temporarily erected in the grounds of Clive House and opened by the Bishop of Lichfield. Many visitors attended the opening and assembled on the lawn where the orchestra was erected. In his address, the Bishop of Lichfield stated that: “all could not expect to excel in cleverness. There were dull children, and for his part he loved a dull child. A flower was quick in growth and developed beauty early the oak was slow in arriving at maturity, but was the emblem of quiet strength. So a dull child might be slowly growing in knowledge and laying up strength for a grand future.” (Eddowes Journal, August 1886) The Rev. Bather also addressed the attendees and spoke about the social effects of the High School system in “bringing together girls on an equal footing, personal merit being the only road to success in this school, which was so conducted as to render favouritism or cliqueism impossible.” (Eddowes Journal, August 1886)
Unfortunately, the Iron House was “cold in winter and stuffy in summer” but was used for prayers, dance, singing lessons and assembly. The girls were always delighted when there was heavy rain, “for the pattering on the roof deadened every other sound.” Between this building and the house, the garden was asphalted for rounders, tennis, drill and calisthenics.
The annual Prize Distribution was held in November 1887 at the Music Hall with Lord Aberdare presiding. There was an “unusually large attendance” to whom Lord Aberdare’s speech reflected on the establishment of high schools for girls throughout the country, referring to the great benefit they were conferring upon the rising generation. He referred in highly complementary terms to the management of the school and expressed the Council’s appreciation of “Miss Canning’s admirable qualities and of the fruitful results of her efficient teaching, the percentage of passes being exceptionally high.” Archdeacon Lloyd, in a brief address, observed that he had at first his doubts as to the advisability of establishing a High School in town, and opposed the scheme, but he thought the best proof of this animosity having long since died away was the fact that he was that day standing on the same platform as Sir R. D. Green-Price, who from the outset was a strong advocate of the cause.
After the speeches, prizes and certificates were presented, “the delighted recipients of the well-earned rewards were warmly applauded on stepping forward to receive the fruits of their labours, and the cheering increased on it being announced that scholarships [to university] had been taken by Miss Lilla Scott and Miss Nellie Thomas.” The concert afterwards included the part song, “The Waterfall” which was “rendered in spirited fashion.” (Eddowes Journal, 1887)
A precursor to the modern sports days started in May 1888, when Form III arranged a day of athletics that included high jump, long jump, three-legged races, egg and spoon races, “throwing the cricket ball”, and tug of war. This year also saw the introduction of Swedish Drill classes.
At the school Speech Day in 1893, headmistress Miss Gavin proudly reported that there were three High School girls studying at Newnham College, University of Cambridge (Nellie Thomas, Anne Woodall, Agatha Kittermaster).
With more than a hundred girls at the school in 1895, even more space was needed. Murivance House on Town Walls was purchased in 1896 and in October the foundation was laid for the new school building. In 1897 the whole school, now 105 pupils, transferred from Clive House to the new building on Murivance, which had cost in excess of nine thousand pounds to build.
On January 19th 1898, H.R.H. Princess Louise (daughter of Queen Victoria and Patron of The Girls’ Public Day School Company) performed the opening ceremony of the “new and handsome premises” of Shrewsbury High School, which has been located on Town Walls ever since. The school’s first open day was held in the November of 1898 when over seven hundred visitors came to see it.
A very wide range of subjects were offered from the start including French, German, Latin, Greek, English, History, Natural History, Botany and Divinity and ’drill’. Academic subjects were studied in the morning and after lunch, girls could do drawing, needlework, dancing and singing. Mathematics was added to the timetable in 1886, Geology in 1892, Chemistry in 1895, and Physics and Biology in 1900.
Subjects for the Kindergarten pupils sound rather more intriguing: Word Songs, Mats, Tablets, Stick-laying, Paper-folding, Button-laying and Paper-Twisting.
The first boarding house was opened in Whitehall Street in 1903 under Mrs Denne and was transferred to Holly House in 1915.
In 1905, Miss Wise said that girls were “in grave danger of weakening mental and moral fibre” by giving up Latin. Just because it is difficult doesn’t mean it should be given up “it was one of the best things about a High School training that the girls were taught to tackle a difficult piece of work.”
The Swedish Drill classes had developed into an annual gymnastics display by 1912.
During the summer term of 1915 the school entertained wounded soldiers from different hospitals. Students also staged a concert in aid of the British Prisoners of War Fund.
The 1916 school magazine reports that many old girls were doing gallant service for the Red Cross and St John’s hospitals in Shrewsbury. Old girls were also working for the French Red Cross at Arc-en-Barrois, the Anglo-Belge Hospital in Rouen, the British Red Cross Hospital in Rouen and at the War Office. Elsie Pritchard was involved in starting the Organisation of Women’s Labour on Anglesey.
During that year all monies which would normally have gone on school prizes, went sent instead to the YMCA for upkeep of a recreation hut for soldiers. A concert in aid of the Local Belgian Relief Fund was also organised. School charities made blankets and handkerchiefs for Belgian hospitals socks and mittens were made and sent to Shropshire battalions and jam to sailors.
A county competition was launched for essays on agricultural work for women during the war. One of the winners was High School pupil Eilidh Hay-Forbes with her essay entitled “A Schoolgirl’s Appeal to the Women of England”, which was published in the Journal of the Board of Agriculture.
“No longer is it true that ‘men must work and women must weep’, all must put their shoulders to the wheel and answer the country’s call in this her hour of need. Women of England! Here lies your great opportunity, which may not come again. For years you have claimed equal rights with men, show now that you are worthy of them and can fill a man’s place!
All can do their share none are too weak or too small to take their part in the maintenance of the nation’s food supply. And who shall say that in the consciousness of helping others and in the quiet simple life lived very close to nature, our anxious hearts shall not be lightened and the burden of grief lifted from many a laden soul, so that we shall look forward in calm confidence to the time when victory shall crown our efforts and peace once more reign on the earth?”
The influenza outbreak of 1918 saw the school temporarily close from October 29th to November 18th.
In 1920 Cyngfeld in Kingsland was bought for boarders there were twenty-six boarders at the time with Mrs Smylie in charge until 1929.
In 1924 a new art studio was built in the grounds.
1927 saw the first recipient of George Hallam’s triennial university scholarship. The Duchess of Atholl attended Speech Day that year and in a letter to Miss Gale afterwards commented that, “I have never enjoyed a school performance more than the one your girls gave us.”
The Duchess of Atholl’s speech also referred to the High School being formed by the G.P.D.S.T and that it was not until the formation of the Trust in the early 1870s that any wide provision for girls’ secondary education had been attempted. Having been at a girls’ high school herself, she had a real sense of the value of the education that the Trust schools had been giving to girls. She added that the founders of the Trust felt that girls should be given a chance of doing honest work. The avenues of work opened up to them were infinitely more numerous now. There was medicine, law, the civil service, and none of them could be entered without real thorough hard work. She thought, therefore, that girls at Trust schools had established their claim to be able to do as thoroughly and conscientious work as the men.
In 1929 the school was visited by Mrs Salmon, the great-niece of Florence Nightingale. During the spring term, Mr T. P. Blunt of 28 Town Walls, died. The log book notes that he will be much missed as his ‘kind and courteous personality made him many friends on the staff and elsewhere.’ He regularly judged the school’s annual Flower Show,
1930 saw the death of Miss Julyan, who had spent twenty-three years as the High School’s Second Mistress. In 1906 she was one of the first women to sit and obtain the Archbishop’s Diploma in Theology and she also taught at St Michael’s Sunday School in Shrewsbury.
In 1931 the school acquired Hampden House and other land next to the school for the new junior school (now the art block).
1932 Death of George Hallam
1933 saw the levelling of Poplars Cottage, a small house on the school grounds, so the land could be adapted for use as a hockey field.
The School continued to expand, and 1935 marked the school’s Golden Jubilee, the retirement of the headmistress, Miss Gale, and the building of a library. In the panelled bay of the window is carved the following inscription: “This library was the gift of staff and pupils, past and present, and of many friends of Shrewsbury High School to commemorate the Jubilee of the School: 1885-1935 and the headmistress-ship of Miss Gale 1907-1935.” The editorial in the school magazine for 1935 records the following: “Its furniture will include two low ‘fireside’ chairs” kindly presented by Mrs Hallam, in memory of our dear and generous old friend of many years standing, Mr George Hallam, and these will have an inscription to this effect carved on the back. These ‘fireside’ still reside in what is now called the ‘Old Library’.
The school was also sent a telegram from Princess Louise on account of the school’s Jubilee and her fond memories of opening the new building in 1898.
In September 1939 over two hundred girls arrived by train from the Trust schools on Merseyside (Birkenhead and Belvedere). The senior girls were billeted with parents and friends of the school, whilst the juniors were both taught and lived at Yeaton Peverey, Bomere Heath, which had been placed at the disposal of the Trust by Sir Offley Wakeman. The seniors were taught on a two-shift system, with Shrewsbury girls having lessons in the morning and the Merseyside students in the afternoon. By spring term most pupils had returned to Merseyside as adequate provision in the way of air-raid shelters had now been provided.
The summer term of 1940 saw staff and students asked to undertake some map numbering for the Salop War Agricultural Executive Committee in connection with the National Survey of France. During the summer holidays many staff and senior girls worked as VAD (Voluntary Aid Detachment) nurses at Royal Salop Infirmary. Others did canteen work, map work for the Agricultural Office and farm work.
Autumn of 1940 saw a collection for the Refugee Fund, whilst a party of senior girls went to Oswestry to hear a Shakespeare recital from John Gielgud.
Evacuees from a number of other Trust schools including Notting Hill and Ealing, Sutton, Wimbledon, Croydon and Sydenham, were enrolled at Shrewsbury. From 1939 to 1940 the school also enrolled Jewish refugees from Austria, Germany and Czechoslovakia.
An evacuee from Wimbledon High School penned the poem Records and Reminiscences from Shrewsbury High School, an extract:
Dear bearers of the apple fruit –
Accept we beg this small tribute
To Shropshire, Shrewsbury and the School
Beneath whose discipline and rule
Now learn (and also flourish) we
Who once knelt round the apple tree.
It rose unchallenged eighteen feet,
Surrounded cottage, rushed up street,
Swept over meadow, crop and field
Till all beneath its force must yield.
And even now the hockey pitch
Bears slight resemblance to a ditch.
The start of 1941 saw a substantial number of new pupils transferred from schools in unsafe areas.
Sports day of that year went ahead but no parents were invited as it would have been impossible to offer shelter to everyone in the event of an air raid alert. However, the day did see the breaking of the school high jump record by Peggy Blakeway Phillips, at 5ft 1inch. The sports day prize money was instead spent on toys for children evacuated to Shrewsbury whose homes had been destroyed by air raids.
The school cadets also finished a recreation hut of a Searchlight Unit stationed on Ellesmere Road. A school vegetable patch was started with the view to sell produce and raise funds for charities. Girls helped with the work of the Food Office in the issue of ration books. And the county police sent a gas van to the school for testing of the girls’ gas masks.
Summer of 1942 saw produce from the school vegetable being sold with proceeds going to the Orthopaedic Hospital. However, the allotment had to be abandoned due to sheep being allowed to graze on the hockey field. A nettle collection was started in response to a national appeal for nettles in order to produce dye for camouflage. Money was raised in order to buy tables and chairs for an anti-aircraft battery hut. And in the summer holidays, a party of senior girls went to Corfton Farm, Craven Arms, to help with the plum picking. The school guides received Blitz cooking practice on the hockey field.
During the autumn term of 1942, more than two hundred books and magazines were collected and sent to the school’s ‘adopted’ Merchant Navy ship, S. S. Twickenham, organised through the Ship Adoption Society. A school visit was arranged to Chatwood Safe Company in Shrewsbury, to see munitions being made.
The boarding house at Cyngfeld closed in 1943 due to it being increasingly difficult to get domestic help because of a shortage of labour. The house was then commandeered by the A.T.S as a hospital. “It cannot always have been easy to unite the divergent interests and loyalties of boarders and day girls, but that this was achieved to a larger extent than might have been expected, may have been due to the pleasant and friendly contact which existed between the staff. Girls at the boarding house regularly gave a party for all the staff at Christmas and seized opportunities to present a play, and in the summer also entertained them at picnics or tennis matches.”
The senior girls were entertained by a pianoforte recital given by Dr Friedmann, an exile from Austria, and onetime Principal of the Conservatoire, Vienna.
SHS school girls having a party on a farm 1940s
Spring 1944 saw the school take over the gardening of an allotment on the corporation estate land near English Bridge. In the summer term, three children evacuated from London started at the school.
The produce from the Harvest Festival in 1944 was taken to the Eye, Ear and Nose Hospital, the Royal Salop Infirmary and to the Waifs and Strays Home on Sutton Road. The latter also received a doll’s house made and furnished by the students along with stockings filled with toys, sweets and apples. The school guide company also ‘adopted’ a British prisoner of war in Germany so he received a parcel regularly.
In March 1945, the Ladybird Guide Patrol raised enough money to pay the travelling expenses of a relief worker. The summer of that year saw 892 eggs collected for Shirlett Sanatorium, Broseley.
1946 magazine has a reference to the last printed magazine being in 1940, with two handmade editions in 1941 and 1943.
The school adopted S. S. Twickenham in 1942 and parcels of books, magazines, razor blades and cigarettes were sent in time for Christmas each year. Captain Cromarty was in regular correspondence with the school, writing with descriptions of the many places around the world the ship had visited. When the ship docked at Plymouth, Captain Cromarty had one of the ship’s life buoys painted with the school colours, the ship owner’s colours and the name of the ship. This, along with eight tins of grapefruit juice, were sent to the school as a thanks for the many parcels that the crew had received over the years. It was hung in the Old Hall next to the ship’s noticeboard.
News from Old Girls in 1946 – Mary Dixon was awarded an OBE for her war work Eva Edwards was awarded an MBE for her work during the previous 25 years under the Public Health Committee, Manchester Heather Auchterlone was working at the Foreign Office and was one of the Right. Hon. Anthony Eden’s secretaries Peggy Blakeway Phillips was with the Army of Occupation in the British zone of Germany.
1947 the school ‘adopted’ a German family of eight, including six children, who had been turned out of their native East Prussia at the end of the war, and who had lost all their property and belongings. The family were now all living in one room and only two of the children had shoes. Each month the school sent a seven-pound food parcel and two parcels of clothing to the family. The children’s mother, Frau Anna Krisp, wrote letters of thanks to the school and said the first parcel was the first time any of them had ever received anything from overseas.
Old girls Gwynneth Webb and Joan Dunn were both working with the Control Commission in Germany.
1948 saw the completion of the new canteen kitchen. It also saw the return of the hockey field (sacrificed as part of the school’s war effort) and the construction of two new tennis courts.
Captain Lawson Smith, a deep-sea diver, gave a lecture on the recovery of shipwrecks – in his full copper, rubber and canvas diving suit.
The S. S. Twickenham docks at Newport and twelve students are taken on a trip to see the ship and meet with the Captain. They were allowed to look through a sextant to find the position of the sun: ‘some of us did see a very disappointing looking sun, but others, I think, were looking in the wrong direction.’
1409 eggs were collected for the Shirlett Sanatorium in 1949. The school was still being inspired by its connection to the S. S. Twickenham and launched a competition for ‘best-made boat from odds and ends’.
The egg collection for Shirlett Sanatorium was 1645 in 1951.
The autumn term of 1958 saw the introduction of the new House system. Cannings (after the school’s first headmistress), Gurney (a founder member of the GDST), Hallam (Old Salopian, a governor and friend of the school in countless ways), Magnus (Sir Laurie – former member of the GDST Council), Somerville (after whom the Trust Science Prize is named), Stanley (Lady Stanley of Alderley, the great benefactor and worker for women’s rights in education).
“The summer term  brought the blossoming of the whole School into boaters! It seems to be generally agreed that these are a success, and they have the advantage over panamas of keeping their shape in a thunder storm. We have yet to see if they will do the same when sat on.” (School Magazine, 1959)
In 1959 the school took over ‘Stepping Stones’ preparatory school on Kennedy Road in Kingsland and merged it with its junior department. The art department subsequently moved into Hampden House.
In 1960 the school celebrated its 75th Anniversary with a commemoration service at St. Chad’s church in the morning and a school pageant later on. A birthday cake displaying the school badge was shared among the whole school.
The early sixties also saw the departure of the junior boys from the High School. Boys had always been admitted in Juniors hitherto but with the need for more places for girls, the tradition came to an end. New laboratories opened in 1961 and No. 28 Town Walls became the Music School (the landscaping of the ‘sunk garden’ was done at this time).
In 1967, Crescent Lane House was purchased and after conversion and furnishing, became the sixth-form house. The first visitor entertained to tea there was the GDST Patron, H.R.H the Duchess of Gloucester, who visited the school in July 1968. The building is now the Music House.
The 1970s saw the building of a new Hall/Gymnasium and new Science buildings.
1971 saw the basement of Hampden House adapted for pottery. Shortly afterwards, No. 28 Town Walls was purchased and became the music school.
In 1985 H.R.H. Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, arrived by helicopter in the Quarry in order to officially open the ‘Centenary Building’ in what had been the former Christian Science Church on Town Walls.
In 1992 new buildings for Physics, Information Communication Technology, and English were opened by Heather Couper, astronomer and broadcaster.
In 1996 a new Performing Arts Studio was opened, and to celebrate the occasion ‘The Laundry Girls‘ was performed by Shrewsbury High School pupils.
In 1997 a purpose built library was opened in the basement of the Centenary Building.
In 2000 the school acquired 27 Town Walls to provide extra facilities for the sixth formers.
In 2005 the school opened a new sports hall called the ‘Kingsland Centre’.
In 2007 the Junior school merged with Kingsland Grange Prep School.
2012 26 Town Walls (new Sixth Form House)
Some of our earliest students:
Anne Askew Woodall
Born 1872 SHS 1887 – 1890. Died in 1926. Became a student teacher for a year at SHS then went to Newnham College, Cambridge, for a Mathematical Tripos.
From Cambridge she spent eleven years as a school mistress at Worcester High School for Girls, before moving to Milton Mount College, Kent in 1906, where she became headmistress until her death in 1926.
Ellen Edith Thomas
Born 1871 SHS 1885 – 1889 Student teacher at SHS for a year. 1892 Newnham College.
Florence Emily Davies
Born 1873 SHS 1886 – 1890. Returned as a student teacher in 1891. BA from the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth in 1895. In 1899 she became headmistress of the County School, Bridgend. In 1902 she was appointed headmistress of Newtown Girls’ School. She died in Newtown in 1947.
Girton College, Cambridge, Medieval and Modern Languages.
Notting Hill High School Magazine of 1904: Jennie Franklin is a valuable member of the first eleven (hockey) and is Head Captain of the fire brigade.
Born 1879 SHS 1883 (from Sutton High School) – 1898.
St Andrew’s, M.A. Wellington Journal of April 1903 reports that she has taken her M.A. degree with class honours and prizes for Latin and botany.
Daisy Gladys Scott
In the autumn of 1902 Daisy went into residence at the Hall for Women Students, University College Liverpool in preparation for a BSc. Daisy had been awarded a scholarship in Science and was placed in Class I for Botany. The Head had heard from the Head of the hall of residence that Daisy and a fellow SHS student at Liverpool, Ethel Whittington, ‘both knew a good deal better than most of the young students how to work by themselves.’
In 1905 Daisy was awarded a scholarship for research, MSc, and was also appointed as a member of the university teaching staff.
By 1911 Daisy was an Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Botany at the University of Liverpool.
The apical meristems of the roots of certain aquatic monocotyledons. New Phytologist. 1906.
On abnormal flowers of Solanum tuberosum. New Phytologist. 1906.
On the megaspore of Lepidostrobus foliaceus. New Phytologist. 1906.
Chemistry of vegetable physiology and agriculture. Journal of the Chemical Society. 1907.
On the Size of the Cells of Pleurococcus and Saccharomyces in Solutions of a Neutral Salt. Biochemical Journal. 1907.
On the distribution of chlorophyll in the young shoots of woody plants. Annals of Botany. 1907.
On the Effect of Acids, Alkalis, and Neutral Salts on the Fermentative Activity and on the Rate of Multiplication of Yeast Cells. Biochemical Journal. 1907.
Took a first class honours degree in Classics at Manchester University, leaving in 1906, was teaching at a girls’ school in Salford in 1911, and later became headmistress of Clitheroe Grammar School for Girls.
Dr Esther Harding
Esther Harding was a pupil at the High School from 1899 to 1907, and the first High School pupil to train as a doctor. She attended the London School of Medicine for Women, established in 1874, it was the first medical school in the UK to train women as doctors. Esther graduated as a doctor in 1914 in a class of nine students and went on to intern at the Royal Infirmary in London, the only hospital in London to accept women interns at that time.
In 1916 she was the House Surgeon at the New Hospital for Women in London. The hospital had been founded in 1890 by Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, the first women in Britain to qualify as a physician and surgeon. It was the first hospital in Britain with only medical women appointed to its staff and was established to enable poor women to obtain medical help from qualified female practitioners.
In 1919 she was the first recipient of the William Gibson Research Scholarship for Medical Women, awarded by the Royal Society of Medicine.
Esther became interested in the relatively new field of psychiatry, and in 1922 moved to Switzerland to study under Carl Gustav Jung. In 1924 Esther relocated to New York, where she developed an extensive practice as a psychoanalyst, becoming one of the chief exponents of Jung’s teachings and, as a leading member of the Karl Jung Foundation, lectured widely in the United States and in Europe.
Published in 1933 and 1935 respectively, The Way of All Women and Women’s Mysteries were pioneering works in the field of psychology from a feminist perspective, exploring topics such as work, marriage, motherhood, old age and women’s relationships, from a Jungian standpoint. Jung himself praised both as an accurate application of Jungian theory. In his introduction to The Way of All Women, he wrote: “Drawing on her rich psychotherapeutic experience, Dr. Harding has sketched a picture of the feminine psyche which, in scope and thoroughness, far surpasses previous works in this field.” Both books were instant bestsellers and were translated into many languages. Esther was a prodigious writer and lecturer and wrote many other well-known books, including: Psychic Energy, Women’s Mysteries, The Parental Image, and The I and not I, along with numerous papers on a variety of subjects from depression to religion.
Miss Crane writing in 1972: “the school continues to pursue its course with happy zest and unabated spirit.”
The original houses were Red, White and Blue, each member wearing a distinguishing button. As the school grew bigger these were increased to six with names commemorating benefactors of the Trust and School: Cannings, Gurney, Hallam, Magnus, Somerville and Stanley in (need date for this and current Houses).
Flower Show and Bulb Show
Not to be outdone by the neighbouring Shrewsbury Flower Show, the High School had, for many decades, its own annual Bulb Show and Flower Show. The former featured prizes for best daffodils and best hyacinths, whilst the latter awarded prizes for best pressed wild flowers, best toy gardens, best hanging basket, prettiest bunch of wild flowers, prettiest buttonhole and a doll dressing competition.
Nature Club (Eco Club), History Club (HIPPOS)
From the outset, old girls found themselves in a variety of employment positions. Teaching positions in Shropshire but also Palestine, China, India, Brazil and South Africa. Secretarial positions locally but also as personal secretary to the Managing Director of the BBC, and also secretary to Edward Shackleton (son of Sir Ernest Shackleton) who led an expedition to the Arctic.
Whilst Classics and modern languages were the most popular subjects to be studied at university in the school’s early days….
Civil War, Coed Beginnings, and The Depression
From its founding until the outbreak of the Civil War, Emory & Henry enjoyed growth in enrollment, expansion of course offerings, and additions to the facilities. When the war came to Southwest Virginia, the college temporarily suspended classes, although the faculty remained on duty the administration building was used as a Confederate hospital. Immediately after the Civil War, classes resumed, but the political and economic instability of that era made the late 1800s a time of struggle for the college. With the inauguration of Richard G. Waterhouse as president in 1893 and an improvement in the regional economy, enrollment stabilized and the college began an ambitious building program.
Women first enrolled at Emory & Henry in 1899, and true coeducation was implemented gradually over the next three decades. In 1918, the administration of Emory & Henry was merged with that of Martha Washington College, a Methodist-affiliated, all-female school in Abingdon. When Martha Washington College closed in 1931, many of the students transferred to Emory & Henry. Today, the site of the former college houses the Martha Washington Inn.
Civil War, Coed Beginnings, and The Depression
The Depression era of the 1930s provided a severe test for the college, but strict financial management implemented in the early 1940s, as well as a World War II contract to host a Navy V-12 program on campus, put the college back on sound footing. With strengthened finances and stable enrollments built partly by military veterans aided by the GI bill, Emory & Henry embarked on a massive building program during the era stretching from the mid-1950s into the early 1970s. During this time, the main campus was transformed by the construction of Memorial Chapel, Wiley Jackson Hall, the Van Dyke Center, Hillman Hall, the Kelly Library, the King Health and Physical Education Center, and other major construction and renovation projects. This period of construction established much of what is considered the heart of the main campus.
State track championship history
In the history of the Spring Track State championships, there has been a handful of Central Mass. teams which have captured team state championships.
On the boys&rsquo side, Ayer was co-champion with Andover in 1979 and then won it outright two years later in 1981. The Shrewsbury girls&rsquo track team has won three state team titles in 1983, 1989 and 1991. In addition, the Hopkinton girls created a dynasty winning five straight team titles from 2000-04.
Individual state records are held by Ayer&rsquos Mike Morris in the 100 meter dash (10.4, set in 1981) and Ayer teammate Neal Connor with a triple jump of 49-06.00 that same year.
Girls&rsquo individual state records are held by Shrewsbury&rsquos Martha White in the 200-meter dash at 24.5 seconds in 1983 (a hand-held stopwatch record co-held with Kathy Guiney of Needham, 1970), while Bromfield&rsquos Ari Lambert owns the mile record of 4:37.23, set back in 2003.
The old and new javelin records are also held by Central Mass. performers. Wachusett&rsquos Kristin Nelson owns the old record of 150-10, set in 1980, while Lunenburg&rsquos Laura Stern holds the new record of 149-08 set in 2008.
Defending boys&rsquo champion Andover will be looking to capture its all-time record tenth state championship, while defending girls&rsquo champion Cambridge Rindge & Latin won its first-ever state title last year.
Here is a complete look at the state championship team history as well as individual record holders:
1968 Andover (Boys) Hamilton-Wenham (Girls)
1969 Melrose (Boys) Brockton (Girls)
1970 Andover (Boys) No state girls' meet
1971 Hingham/Needham No state girls' meet
1972 Belmont No state girls' meet
1973 Andover (Boys) Brookline (Girls)
1974 Brockton (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1975 Reading (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1976 New Bedford (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1977 Newton North (Boys) Brockton (Girls)
1978 Brockton (Boys) Danvers (Girls)
1979 Ayer / Andover (Boys) Danvers (Girls)
1980 New Bedford (Boys) Billerica (Girls)
1981 Ayer (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1982 No State Track Meet &ndash Proposition 2 ½
1983 New Bedford (Boys) Shrewsbury (Girls)
1984 Andover (Boys) Norwell (Girls)
1985 Methuen (Boys) Norwell (Girls)
1986 Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Boys) North Attleboro (Girls)
1987 Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Boys) Lexington (Girls)
1988 Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Boys) Norwell (Girls)
1989 Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Boys) Shrewsbury (Girls)
1990 Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Boys) Chelmsford (Girls)
1991 Brockton (Boys) Shrewsbury (Girls)
1992 Brockton (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1993 New Bedford (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1994 Lexington (Boys) Falmouth (Girls)
1995 New Bedford (Boys) Methuen (Girls)
1996 Brockton (Boys) Reading (Girls)
1997 Gloucester (Boys) Medfield (Girls)
(Div. 1 made up of Class A & B Div. 2 made up of Class C & D)
1998 Div. 1 &ndash Haverhill Div. 1 &ndash Springfield Cathedral
Div. 2 &ndash Foxboro / Martha&rsquos Vineyard Div. 2 &ndash Foxboro
1999 Div. 1 &ndash Cambridge Rindge & Latin Div. 1 &ndash Brookline
Div. 2 &ndash Seekonk Div. 2 - Stoneham (Girls)
2000 Brockton (Boys) Hopkinton (Girls)
2001 Xaverian (Boys) Hopkinton (Girls)
2002 New Bedford (Boys) Hopkinton (Girls)
2003 Newton North (Boys) Hopkinton (Girls)
2004 Newton North (Boys) Hopkinton (Girls)
2005 Newton North (Boys) Andover (Girls)
2006 Xaverian (Boys) Lincoln-Sudbury (Girls)
2007 Lexington (Boys) Lincoln-Sudbury (Girls)
2008 Charlestown (Boys) Newton South (Girls)
2009 Andover (Boys) Mansfield (Girls)
2010 Andover (Boys) Newton North (Girls)
2011 Mansfield (Boys) Newton North (Girls)
2012 Mansfield (Boys) Newton North (Girls)
2013 Newton North (Boys) Hingham (Girls)
2014 Woburn Newton (Boys) North (Girls)
2015 Andover (Boys) Cambridge Rindge & Latin (Girls)
10.4h &ndash Michael Morris, Ayer High, 1981
21.01 &ndash Jeffrey Smith, Silver Lake Regional, 2006
47.52 &ndash Mike Greene, Boston College High, 1983
1:51.99 &ndash John Lampron, Mansfield, 2012
4:05.14 &ndash Victor Gras, Belmont High, 2004
9:00.00 &ndash Alberto Salazar, Wayland High, 1975
13.8h &ndash Jeff Baker, Methuen High, 1985
53.53 &ndash Aaron Araujo, New Bedford High, 2010
37.4h &ndash Dan Clark, Tewksbury High, 1996
7:47.73 &ndash Amherst-Pelham, 2015
3:18.55 &ndash Brockton High, 1979
7-00.50 &ndash Jean Washington Morisset, Quincy High, 2003
15-06.00 &ndash Vladimir Popusoi, Greenfield, 2014
23-10.50 - Greg Ouellette, Wareham High, 1965
49-06.00 - Neal Connor, Ayer High, 1981
178-00 &ndash Andrew Tallman, Boston College High, 2009
202-06 &ndash Kyle Quinn, Somerset High, 2010
224-02 &ndash Tom Meyer, Lexington High (Old Javelin), 1977
67-10.75 - Jeff Chakouian, Seekonk High, 2000
6 &ndash Brockton, Cambridge Rindge & Latin, New Bedford
Consecutive State Championships
5 &ndash Cambridge Rindge & Latin (1986-90)
3 &ndash Boston English (1963-65), Newton North (2003-05)
2 &ndash Andover (2009-10), Brockton (1991-92), Mansfield (2011-12)
Girls State Track Records
11.8h &ndash Tasha Downing, Boston Technical High, 1987
24.43 &ndash Amanda Henson, Barnstable, 2013
24.5h &ndash Kathy Guiney, Needham, 1970
24.5h &ndash Martha White, Shrewsbury, 1983
54.51 &ndash Sierra Irvin, Hingham, 2014
2:07.14 &ndash Karina Shepard, Dracut, 2014
4:37.23 &ndash Ari Lambie, Bromfield School, 2003
10:24.21 &ndash Shalane Flanagan, Marblehead High, 1999
14.25 &ndash Vanessa Clevereaux, Brockton, 2011
14.3h &ndash Anne Jennings, Falmouth High, 1980
59.52 &ndash Alex Stanton, Medfield, 2011
43.25 &ndash Colleen Farley, Mt. Greylock Regional, 2003
9:15.13 &ndash Newton North High, 2007
47.92 &ndash North Attleboro High, 2009
5-10.00 &ndash Becky Bryan, Lexington High, 1987
13-00.00 &ndash Anna McFarlane, Concord-Carlisle, 2003
20-03.50 - Aranxta King, Medford High, 2007
42-00.00 &ndash Arantxa King, Medford High, 2006
157-05 &ndash Pia Iacova, Brockton High, 1979
149-08 &ndash Laura Stern, Lunenburg High, 2008
150-10 &ndash Kristin Nelson, Wachusett Regional (Old Javelin), 1980
44-09.00 &ndash Heather Oldham, Woburn High (4K), 1998
47-02.00 &ndash Pam Hall, Weston High (8 lb.), 1978
Consecutive State Championships
3 &ndash Falmouth (1974-76 1992-94), Newton North (2010-12)
2 &ndash Danvers (1978-79), Lincoln-Sudbury (2006-07), Norwell (1984-85)
Development of ideas on evolution
In 1842 and 1844 Darwin wrote short accounts of his views on evolution (change and improvement over time). However, the publication of other related works around the same time caused great controversy (dispute) and criticism of the authors, and Darwin decided the time was not yet right for him to enter the argument. He decided to wait and do more research. Darwin studied the practices of pigeon breeders, he conducted experiments on differences in plants and animals over time, and he worried about the problem of plant and animal transport across land and water barriers𠅏or he believed in the importance of isolation for the creation of new species.
In May 1856 Lyell heard of Darwin's ideas and urged him to write an account with full references. Darwin sent a chapter to Lyell and Sir Joseph Hooker, who were deeply impressed. In June 1858, when Darwin was
A TIMELINE OF THE LIFE OF CHARLES DARWIN
Charles Darwin is born at The Mount, Shrewsbury, the fifth child of Robert Waring Darwin, physician, and Susannah Wedgwood.
Darwin's mother dies his 3 older sisters take on maternal responsibilities.
Darwin starts at Unitarian day school.
Darwin attends Shrewsbury School as a boarder. He hates the school, describing it as "narrow and classical".
Darwin is removed from school, being deemed unsuccessful, and spends the summer accompanying his father on his doctor's rounds. That autumn, he is sent to Edinburgh University, with his brother Erasmus, to study medicine.
Darwin joins the Plinian Society in Edinburgh.
It is around this time that Darwin meets his most influential mentor at Edinburgh, Robert Grant.
Abhorred by medicine, Darwin leaves Edinburgh without taking a degree. Darwin's father, anxious that he does not become idle, insists that Darwin take up clerical studies in Cambridge.
After spending some time brushing up on his forgotten Greek, Darwin enters Christ's College, Cambridge.
Darwin sits his BA exam, and is astonished to be ranked 10th out of 178 candidates.
27th December 1831
Darwin finally sets sail on the Beagle.
29th October 1836
Darwin meets the geologist Lyell for the first time.
4th January 1837
Darwin reads his first scientific paper "Observations. on the coast of Chile" at the Geological Society in London.
The Beagle journal is published under the title Journals and Remarks, volume three of Darwin's Narrative of the voyage.
Darwin moves from Cambridge to 36, Great Marlborough Street, London.
Darwin is elected to the Athenaeum.
. and then to the Royal Society.
. and then to the Council of the Royal Geographical Society.
Darwin marries Emma Wedgwood, his first cousin. Their first child, William Erasmus, is born on December 27th.
Structure and distribution of Coral Reefs is published.
Darwin writes a thirty-five page sketch of evolutionary theory.
Darwin and his young family move to Down House.
Darwin write Volcanic Islands.
Buoyed by Joseph Dalton Hooker’s response to his earlier drafts of evolutionary theory, Darwin finishes a 231 page manuscript.
In the same year, Robert Chambers publishes Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, a popularisation of evolution theory. This is not well received.
Darwin finishes his last book describing the Beagle voyages: Geological Observations on South America.
Darwin's eldest daughter Anne dies.
Darwin's first of two volumes on stalked barnacles is published. This overhauls the entire subclass of fossil and living Cirripedia.
The Royal Society award Darwin their Royal Medal for his work on barnacles.
Darwin is elected to the Royal Society's Philosophical Club, and to the Linnean Society.
Darwin conducts experiments to prove that seeds, plants and animals could reach oceanic islands, where they might produce new species in geographic isolation.
Darwin invites Huxley and other naturalists to a weekend party, where they discuss his ideas on the origin of species. After the meeting, he begins writing for publication, encouraged by Lyell, who feared that others might publish the same work before him.
1st July 1858
After correspondence with Wallace (who had come up with a semmingly identical theory), and advised by Hooker and Lyell, extracts from Darwin's work and a paper by Wallace are presented at the Linnean Society. This work is later published as "On the tendency of species to form varieties" in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society (Zoology). Events moved so fast, that Wallace is not notified of the joint presentation until afterwards, but responds courteously.
Darwin now moves quickly. He writes a book, stripped of academic references and aimed at the reading public, called On the Origin of Species. The 1250 print run of 1859 is oversubscribed, and Darwin starts corrections for a second edition.
The book’s cause is championed by Huxley, who is confrontational, and somewhat polarised the debate. Darwin backs him nonetheless, excusing himself from combat because of illness.
Darwin is awarded the Copley medal of the Royal Society (after being nominated three years running). This is the source of much debate the Origin of Species was omitted from the award.
Darwinism begins to dominate the views of the British Association, as Darwin’s chief scientific supporters, Hooker and Huxley, are presidents.
The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication is published.
The Descent of Man is published, and the Origin is extensively re-written to answer arguments by Mivart. This sixth and last edition uses the word 'evolution' for the first time.
Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals completes great cycle of evolutionary writings.
Cambridge bestows Darwin with an honorary doctorate of law.
10th April 1882
After a heart attack on Christmas, followed by seizures, Charles Darwin dies, in great suffering, at Down House. He is later buried in Westminster Abbey.
A warm Welcome
Welcome to Shrewsbury International School Hong Kong. Our superb, spacious facilities in Tseung Kwan O are designed specifically for children aged 3-11 years, and enable our specialist Primary School teaching staff to deliver a rich educational experience for all of our students.
Through our broad and engaging thematic Primary and Early Years curriculum, complimented a varied extra curricular programme, we aim to support and nurture thoughtful, compassionate leaders, and establish foundations for successful life long learning.
Our school tours allow prospective families the opportunity to explore Shrewsbury International School Hong Kong.
Learn more about what makes Shrewsbury Sparkle.
We are committed to developing a broad and representative community of learners.
Our British Curriculum learning pathway is specially adapted to meet the needs our of international community.
A 3D experience of our purpose-built campus.
We are an ambitious community that strives for excellence, and where happiness of our students is our first priority
Shrewsbury College - History
Concord was founded in 1949 after WW2 by Mr Paul Oertel and Miss Monica Carr-Taylor, just outside Hastings in Sussex, as a small privately-owned language school. It was at its heart, a response to the hatred and bitterness of war by using language teaching and personal warmth to break down barriers and misunderstandings between peoples. The college soon moved to larger and more conducive premises at Tunbridge Wells in Kent and expanded to offer A Levels. The word Concord means ‘harmony’ and the first generation of students remember a family friendly atmosphere in which the joint Principals worked tirelessly for the welfare and academic success of their students.
The college continued to grow slowly and in 1969 upon the retirement of the founder Principals, the college was bought by Mr Frank Bell who had founded the Bell School of Languages a number of years earlier. In 1973 the college moved again to its present site at Acton Burnell and a major programme of expansion began. Student numbers rose from the 90 students who came to Acton Burnell in 1973, to 200 by the 1980s. The expansion of the College at this time enabled improvements to the facilities including the provision of a library, a gymnasium (now the current Library), engineering workshop and science laboratories.
In 1977 Concord accepted girls for the first time, although they were taught at a separate site, in part of the nearby Attingham Park stately home (now run by the National Trust). By the early 1980s the girls were integrated on the site at Acton Burnell.
In 1983, in one of the most significant moments in Concord’s development, the college became a charitable trust. A board of trustees rather than an owner was now responsible for the strategic direction of the college and a period of expansion and improvement of the facilities began. Mr Tony Morris had taken over as Principal in 1975 from Mr Martin Horwood and it was Mr Morris’s vision and guidance that enabled the college to fulfil its ambitious aims in these important years. In order to attract the most able students a substantial scholarship programme was introduced and by 2002 Concord was among the top fifty schools in the country.
In 1995 it was decided to open a Lower School to offer GCSE courses for students under 16. From its own small beginnings the Concord Lower School has developed and expanded. Each year our Lower School continues to achieve outstanding GCSE results, the best in Shropshire, and now attracts top students from both the local area and overseas.With the retirement of Mr Morris in 2005, Mr Neil Hawkins was appointed Principal of the college. Since 2005, the College has grown very considerably both in numbers, the number of subjects offered, the number of staff employed and in the complexity of education on offer. In 2009 Concord celebrated its Diamond Jubilee and was honoured to be visited by HRH The Princess Royal. Her visit, the first ever royal visit for Concord and the first member of the royal family to visit Acton Burnell since 1283, coincided with the college breaking into the top ten schools in the UK league tables.
Student numbers have now reached 600 with record numbers of boarding and day students sharing Concord’s beautiful facilities. Results have also reached record levels with all of Concord’s top GCSE, AS level, A level and top university entry success occurring in the last three years. At the same time, Concord has opened new classrooms, boarding houses, a new library and greatly extended the dining room. In 2015, Concord announced its most ambitious programme of development to date, with the extension of the campus to the north by 32 acres, the building of a new boarding residence for lower school girls and the commissioning of a £12 million science block which was completed in January 2018. These developments have coincided with the launching of the Anthony Morris Foundation. This Foundation aims to raise funds to enable students to study at Concord who might – because of the cost – not otherwise be able to do so.
In 2019, Concord celebrated its 70 th anniversary. This was marked by a number of events that culminated in a wonderful gathering at Concord College. Former students and their families from around the world and ranging from Concordians from the mid-1950s to very recent leavers came together for an evening of friendship and fun. The event was very special in so many ways, but was also a timely reminder of the stature and strength of the Concord community and of the Concord network.
In addition to the development of Concord College in Acton Burnell, Concord is actively seeking to develop further schools as opportunities allow. The first of these is the Shanghai Concord Bilingual School which opened in 2017 and further are planned in the years ahead. Related to this, Mr Neil Hawkins is to take up a new appointment as Global Principal of Concord College International in September 2021. He will be succeeded as Principal of Concord College by Dr Michael Truss.
So, it is clear to see that a great deal has changed and developed over the years here at Concord and this trend will continue. But at its heart lies great continuity: Concord has always been ambitious to provide a rigorous, creative and kind education for the student community we have the honour to serve.