Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943, was the first of two successful attempts to reinforce the Salerno beachhead from the air.

Although the Allies had successfully landed at Salerno on 9 September, they had been unable to link up the two halves of their beachhead, which were separated by the River Sele. Marshal Kesselring, the German commander in southern Italy, quickly managed to build up strong forces around the beachhead, and on 13 September he launched a dangerous counterattack that advanced along the Sele, and got dangerously close to the coast. General Clark, the Allied commander at Salerno, responded by adjusting the Allied line to make it easier to defend, planning for a possible retreat, and ordering all available reinforcements to be rushed to the beachhead. Amongst the available troops was the 82nd Airborne Division on Sicily.

Operation Giant I (Revised) was planned and carried out in a remarkably short period of time. The 51st and 52nd Troop Carrier Wings, which were to drop the troops, were only informed of the operation at 1330 hours on 13 September. The operational orders were issued at 1830, and the first aircraft took off at 1930. Even so the operation was well planned and a total success.

The first aircraft to set off were three pathfinders, carrying fifty paratroops with homing equipment. They dropped right onto the drop zone, which was three and a half miles south of the Sele River, in the American half of the beachhead. They then set up their Rebecca-Eureka beacons and Krypton lamps (designed to produce a blinding flash of light, visible in daylight, every five seconds). In order to protect the incoming paratroops against the sort of friendly fire incidents that had marred airborne operations over Sicily, all Allied AA fire was suspended during the drop.

The Pathfinders were followed by the main force, 82 C-47s and C-53s from the 61st, 313th and 314th Troop Carrier Groups, which were carrying 1,300 men from the 504th Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division. The vast majority of the troops landed within 200 yards of the drop zone. B Company, 1st Battalion, landed eight miles to the south-east. No aircraft were lost, and only one paratrooper was injured during the operation.

The reinforcements were gathered together at Albanella, and immediately thrown into the defensive battle. The worst crisis of the battle actually came on 13 September, the day before their arrival, when the Germans threatened to split the beachhead in half. The arrival of the paratroops, combined with a sensible adjustment of the Allied lines, meant that the renewed German attack on 14 September had far less impact, and the crisis was soon over.

Project Riese

Riese ( [ˈʁiːzə] German for "giant") is the code name for a construction project of Nazi Germany in 1943–1945, consisting of seven underground structures located in the Owl Mountains and Książ Castle in Lower Silesia, which was in Germany but is now in Poland.

None of them were finished, and all are in different states of completion with only a small few tunnels reinforced by concrete.

The purpose of the project remains uncertain because of the lack of documentation. Some sources suggest that all the structures were part of the Führer Headquarters [1] [2] [3] according to others, it was a combination of headquarters (HQ) and arms industry [4] [5] but comparison to similar facilities can indicate that only the castle was adapted as an HQ or other official residence and the tunnels in the Owl Mountains were planned as a network of underground factories. [6] [7] [8]

The construction work was done by forced labourers, prisoners of war (POWs), and prisoners of concentration camps, and many lost their lives, mostly as a result of disease and malnutrition.

Polish resistance falters

The Polish army made several severe strategic miscalculations early on. Although 1 million strong, the Polish forces were severely under-equipped and attempted to take the Germans head-on, rather than falling back to more natural defensive positions. 

The outmoded thinking of the Polish commanders coupled with the antiquated state of its military were simply no match for the overwhelming and modern-mechanized German forces. And, of course, any hope the Poles might have had of a Soviet counter-response was dashed with the signing of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Nonaggression Pact.

Great Britain would respond with bombing raids over Germany three days later.

Siege of Leningrad begins

During World War II, German forces begin their siege of Leningrad, a major industrial center and the USSR’s second-largest city. The German armies were later joined by Finnish forces that advanced against Leningrad down the Karelian Isthmus. The siege of Leningrad, also known as the 900-Day Siege though it lasted a grueling 872 days, resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city’s civilians and Red Army defenders.

Leningrad, formerly St. Petersburg, capital of the Russian Empire, was one of the initial targets of the German invasion of June 1941. As German armies raced across the western Soviet Union, three-quarters of Leningrad’s industrial plants and hundreds of thousands of its inhabitants were evacuated to the east. More than two million residents remained, however, and the evacuated were replaced by refugees who fled to Leningrad ahead of the German advance. All able-bodied persons in the city—men, women, and children—were enlisted to build antitank fortifications along Leningrad’s edge. By the end of July, German forces had cut the Moscow-Leningrad railway and were penetrating the outer belt of the fortifications around Leningrad. On September 8, German forces besieged the city, but they were held at bay by Leningrad’s fortifications and its 200,000 Red Army defenders. That day, a German air bombardment set fire to warehouses containing a large part of Leningrad’s scant food supply.

Aiming to tighten the noose around Leningrad, the Germans launched an offensive to the east in October and cut off the last highways and rail lines south of the city. Meanwhile, Finnish forces advanced down the Karelian Isthmus (which had been seized from Finland by the Soviets during the Russo-Finnish War of 1939 to 1940) and besieged Leningrad from the north. By early November, the city was almost completely encircled, and only across Lake Ladoga was a supply lifeline possible.

German artillery and air bombardments came several times a day during the first months of the siege. The daily ration for civilians was reduced to 125 grams of bread, no more than a thick slice. Starvation set in by December, followed by the coldest winter in decades, with temperatures falling to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. People worked through the winter in makeshift armament factories without roofs, building the weapons that kept the Germans just short of victory.

Residents burned books and furniture to stay warm and searched for food to supplement their scarce rations. Animals from the city zoo were consumed early in the siege, followed before long by household pets. Wallpaper paste made from potatoes was scraped off the wall, and leather was boiled to produce an edible jelly. Grass and weeds were cooked, and scientists worked to extract vitamins from pine needles and tobacco dust. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, resorted to cannibalizing the dead, and in a few cases people were murdered for their flesh. The Leningrad police struggled to keep order and formed a special division to combat cannibalism.

Across frozen Lake Ladoga, trucks made it to Leningrad with supplies, but not enough. Thousands of residents, mostly children and the elderly, were evacuated across the lake, but many more remained in the city and succumbed to starvation, the bitter cold, and the relentless German air attacks. In 1942 alone, the siege claimed some 600,000 lives. In the summer, barges and other ships braved German air attack to cross Lake Ladoga to Leningrad with supplies.

In January 1943, Red Army soldiers broke through the German line, rupturing the blockade and creating a more efficient supply route along the shores of Lake Ladoga. For the rest of the winter and then during the next, the “road of life” across the frozen Lake Ladoga kept Leningrad alive. Eventually, an oil pipeline and electric cables were laid on the lake bed. In the summer of 1943, vegetables planted on any open ground in the city supplemented rations.

In early 1944, Soviet forces approached Leningrad, forcing German forces to retreat southward from the city on January 27. The siege was over. A giant Soviet offensive to sweep the USSR clean of its invaders began in May. The 872-day siege of Leningrad cost an estimated one million Soviet lives, perhaps hundreds of thousands more. The Soviet government awarded the Order of Lenin to the people of Leningrad in 1945, paying tribute to their endurance during the grueling siege. The city did not regain its prewar population of three million until the 1960s.

Historical Events in May 1943

    Strike against obligatory labor camps ends, after 200 killed US 1st armour division occupies Mateur Tunisia NL Ford Frick demonstrates revised balata ball to reporters by bouncing it on his office carpet ball proves to be 50% livelier Postmaster General Frank C Walker invents Postal Zone System British 1st army opens assault on Tunis British 11th Hussars occupy Tunis Dutch men 18-35 obliged to report to labor camps

Event of Interest

May 7 Liberty Ship George Washington Carver, named after scientist, launched

    US 1st Armour division occupies Ferryville, Tunisia US 9th Infantry division occupies Bizerta/Bensert, Tunisia 68th Preakness: Johnny Longden aboard Count Fleet wins in 1:57.4 Admiral Cunningham of British fleet: "Sink, burn & destroy let nothing pass" 5th German Panzer army surrenders in Tunisia Rotschild-Haddassh University Hospital opens

Victory in Battle

May 11 Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrenders

Event of Interest

May 12 British premier Winston Churchill arrives in USA

    German troops in Tunisia, North Africa, surrender German & Italian forces in Africa surrender German occupiers attempt to confiscate all radios in the Netherlands Sinking of the Australian Hospital Ship Centaur off the coast of Queensland, by a Japanese submarine Halifax bombers sinks U-463

Event of Interest

May 15 Joseph Stalin dissolves the Comintern (or Third International) to avoid upsetting his Western allies with claims he was trying to foment revolution globally

Event of Interest

May 16 Operation Chastise: No. 617 Squadron RAF begins the famous Dambusters Raid, bombing the Möhne and Eder dams in the Ruhr valley with bouncing bombs

Event of Interest

May 16 SS General Jürgen Stroop orders the burning of the Warsaw Ghetto, ending a month of Jewish resistance. 13,000 Jews have died, about half burnt alive or suffocated, German casualties less than 300

    The United States Army contracts with the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School to develop the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). World War II: the Dambuster Raids by No. 617 Squadron RAF on German dams

Event of Interest

May 17 Millionaire Howard Hughes crashes into Lake Mead, while test flying his Sikorsky S-43, killing CAA inspector Ceco Cline and Richard Felt

    Allied bombers attack Pantelleria, an Italian island 100 km southwest of Sicily Berlin is declared "Judenrien" (free of Jews) Churchill pledges Britain's full support to US against Japan French, British and US victory parade in Tunis, Tunisia Fastest 9 inning AL baseball night game (89 mins), Chicago White Sox beat visiting Washington Senators, 1-0 RAF scatters 1st copies of "The Flying Hollander" -24] 826 Allied bombers attack Dortmund

Event of Interest

May 23 Thomas Mann begins writing his novel Dr Faustus

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943 - History

Part 2 of 2 - 1943-1945

Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)



Merchant Shipping War - By now the attack was being carried into the waters of German-occupied Europe by Royal Navy coastal forces, strike aircraft of RAF Coastal Command and minelayers of Bomber Command. German aircraft, E-boats and mines continued to threaten shipping around the coasts of Britain, but few ships were now being lost due to the combined effort of the RAF fighters, convoy escorts and minesweepers.


Axis Supplies to Tunisia - Attempts by the Italian Navy to supply the Axis armies in Tunisia led to heavy losses, especially on mines laid between Sicily and Tunis by fast minelayers "Abdiel" and "Welshman", and submarine "Rorqual". 9th - Destroyer "CORSARO" hit one of "Abdiel's" mines northeast of Bizerta. 31st - Torpedo boat "PRESTINARI" and corvette "PROCELLARIA" went down on mines laid by "Welshman" in the Strait of Sicily.


22nd - Mines laid by "U-118" in the Strait of Gibraltar sank three merchantmen and on the 22nd Canadian corvette "WEYBURN" as she escorted North Africa/UK convoy MKS8.


1st - As cruiser-minelayer "WELSHMAN" sailed from Malta to Alexandria after minelaying operations in the Strait of Sicily, she was sunk by "U-617" north of Bardia. 3rd - Italian destroyer "SAETTA" and destroyer escort "URAGANO", supplying Axis forces in Tunisia, sank on cruiser-minelayer "Abdiel's" mines northeast of Bizerta.

Southern Tunisia Campaign - 9th - Corvette "ERICA" on escort duty sank on a British mine off Benghazi.


Royal Navy Submarine Operations - The Royal Navy lost three 'T' class submarines, including "TIGRIS" which set out from Malta on 18th February for a patrol off Naples. She failed to return to Algiers on the 10th March, possibly mined off the Gulf of Tunis as she returned.

Tunisia - 8th - Cruiser-minelayer "Abdiel" laid more mines in the Axis supply routes to Tunisia. The field north of Cape Bon sank three destroyers in March, starting with destroyer escort "CICIONE" on the 8th. 24th - "Abdiel's" field sank two more Italian destroyers - "ASCARI" and "MALOCELLO".


Monthly Loss Summary: 14 German and 1 Italian U-boats including 1 by RAF-laid mine in the Bay of Biscay.


Submarine "REGENT" on patrol in the Strait of Otranto may have attacked a small convoy near Bari, Italy on the 18th, but there was no response from the convoy escorts. She failed to return to Beirut at the end of the month and was presumed lost on mines in her patrol area.


Merchant Shipping War - By mid-month minesweepers had cleared a channel through the Strait of Sicily, and the first regular Mediterranean convoys since 1940 were able to sail from Gibraltar to Alexandria.

DEFENCE OF TRADE - January 1942 to May 1943

Total Losses = 2,029 British, Allied and neutral ships of 9,792,000 tons ( 576,000 tons per month)

By Cause

Causes in order of tonnage sunk
(1. 4. . - Order when weapon first introduced)

Number of British, Allied, neutral ships

Total Gross Registered Tonnage

1. Submarines


8,048,000 tons

4. Aircraft


814,000 tons

5. Other causes


348,000 tons

6. Raiders


202,000 tons

2. Mines


172,000 tons

3. Warships


130,000 tons

7. Coastal forces


78,000 tons


10th - Invasion of Sicily, Operation 'Husky' - 12th - Italian submarine "BRONZO" was captured off Syracuse by minesweepers "Boston", "Cromarty", "Poole" and "Seaham"


Early August - "U-647" on passage out may have been lost on the Iceland/ Faeroes mine barrage around the 3rd of the month. If so she was the only casualty of this vast minefield throughout the war.


12th - "U-617" was da maged by a RAF Wellington of No 179 Squadron and beached on the coast of Spanish Morocco. She was destroyed by gunfire from trawler "Haarlem", supported by corvette "Hyacinth" and Australian minesweeper "Wollongong".

Italy - Surrender and Invasion - Early on the 9th, in conjunction with the Italian landings, the Eighth Army's 1st Airborne Division was carried into Taranto by mainly British warships (Operation 'Slapstick'). Shortly afterwards the Adriatic ports of Brindisi and Bari were in Allied hands. 9th - Around midnight in Taranto harbour, cruiser-minelayer "ABDIEL", loaded with 1st Airborne troops, detonated one of the magnetic mines dropped by E-boats "S-54" and "S-61" as they escaped, and sank with heavy loss of life.


Early October - Submarine "USURPER" which left Algiers on 24th September for the Gulf of Genoa, failed to answer a signal on the 11th. She may have been mined or fallen victim to German A/S forces.

British Aegean Campaign - 22nd - Greek 'Hunt' "ADRIAS" was b adly damaged off Kos on mines laid by the German "Drache", and as sister ship "HURWORTH" went to her aid, was also mined. She sank with heavy casualties. 24th - Destroyer "ECLIPSE" fell victim to the same minefield.


Merchant Shipping War - E-boats and mines were still capable of taking a toll of coastal shipping. On the night of the 4th/5th, Channel convoy CW221 lost three ships off Beachy Head to E-boat attack, and later in the month two more were mined off Harwich.


Mid-November - Submarine "SIMOOM" sailed from Port Said on the 2nd for the Aegean and failed to answer a signal on the 19th. She was presumed mined although German records claim she was torpedoed by "U-565" off Kos on the 15th.



5th - Escort carrier "Slinger" was mine d and damaged in the Thames Estuary off Sheerness.


11th - As German and Japanese submarines continued to attack Allied shipping in the Indian Ocean, two Japanese boats were sunk. "RO-110" attacked a Calcutta/Colombo convoy in the Bay of Bengal and was sunk by the escorts - Indian sloop "Jumna" and Australian minesweepers "Ipswich" and "Launceston".


28th - Submarine "SYRTIS" was on Norwegian patrol. After sinking a small ship off Bodo a few days before, she was sunk in the minefields flanking the port.


26th - Two surface actions took place in the English Channel off the coast of Brittany, both involving Canadian destroyers. On the 26th, cruiser "Black Prince" with four destroyers - three from the Royal Canadian Navy - was on Western Channel patrol out of Plymouth. Early that morning they run into German torpedo boats "T-24", "T-27" and "T-29" on a minelaying mission. "T-27" was dam aged and "T-29" sunk by the Canadian 'Tribal' class "Haida". 29th - This time "Haida" and sister ship "Athabaskan" were covering Allied minelaying, when they were surprised by the surviving "T-24" and repaired "T-27". "ATHABASKAN" was h it by a torpedo from "T-24" and blew up, but "Haida" managed to drive "T-27" ashore where she was later destroyed. The surviving "T-24" hit a mine but got into port.

German Coastal Shipping - RAF Bomber Command continued to lay mines in the Baltic.

DEFENCE OF TRADE - June 1943 to May 1944

Total Losses = 324 British, Allied and neutral ships of 1,733,000 tons (144,000 tons per month)

Causes in order of tonnage sunk
(1. 4. . - Order when weapon first introduced)

The US Navy at war (1942-45)

Before Pearl Harbour

The “day of infamy” as it was called later. The first “official” wartime day for the United States of America took place on December 7, 1941. In reality, some US airmen had (very briefly) fought under the French cockades in 1940, others in China (including Chennault’s famous Flying Tigers), and some in the battle of Britain. But in the Atlantic, convoys were escorted by the Royal Navy to about halfway, followed by a “no mans land”, where ships were left to fend off Uboats attacks by themselves.

This was before the US Navy took over the escort, ensuring that at least its own vessels safely reached territorial waters. But destroyers captains often well beyond these waters. Not wanting to repeat the torpedoing of the Lusitania (which had been one of the casus belli which brought America into the great war), Hitler and behind him Dönitz, had given very clear orders for The U-Boats to respect flags neutrality as and to avoid getting too close to the limit of the territorial waters.

However, throughout 1941 as the Atlantic campaign intensified, many commanders of US destroyers or cruisers witnessed attacks at the boundaries or even within the territorial waters of the United States. Some had even taken the initiative of launching grenades on German submarines, long before the US entered the war. There had been at least some “muscular” exchanges between some reckless U-boats and coast guard too.

Pearl Harbour and its consequences

The United States has been dragged to war by two naval events, and the technology behind these was quite symbolic and revolutionary. The first time in 1917, it was the threat of submarine warfare. The second time, it was to be the apogee of naval air warfare.

Pearl Harbour, beyond the human catastrophy, the battlehip losses, and the character of surprise, completely stunned traditional naval analysts. Never ever an airborne attack could have been so massive and so daring as to be successful. These analysts should have been short-sighted however, as to not see the Tarento attack, the same year but more than one year before, in November 1940.

This was a coup from the Royal Navy, which effectively sunk or damaged the whole of the Italian fleet anchored in Tarento, ruling the central Mediterranean area. And this was done, like the successful attack of the Bismark later, by a handful of antiquated biplanes, the Swordfish.

Torpedo-bombers and Zero fighters preparing to launch their second wave on boad Akagi, December, 7, 1941

Tensions with the Japanese at that time led already officers to believe a war with the “seeping giant” was not an option but a somewhat unavoidable end when the US eventually put an embargo on oil and other industrial resources. Yamamoto Isoroku, a visionary admiral that hard-pressed for the creation of a first rate naval air arm, did not lost anything of the British attack.

Seeing the war inevitable he planned a knockout blow, comforted by most top brass believing the Americans would gave up soon. The scale of the attack had simply been multiplied by the number of aircraft carriers engaged, a very advanced training and total surprise.

After two attacks and very few losses, the success of the operation had been total. Its result was twofold: Loss of the Pacific fleet (except aircraft carriers, which proved to be absolutely crucial for the continuation), and America’s war entry.

In spite of Roosevelt’s sympathy and commitment to Great Britain, this formidable slap was necessary to turn a firmly neutral public opinion and put the United States on the footing of war. Henceforth nothing could stop the giant to wake up and strike back.

The fleet oiler Neosho AO-23, sunk at Pearl Harbour. The Japanese however failed to destroy the fleet’s massive reserves of oil, as well as any aircraft carriers.

However severe the shock of Pearl Harbour was for the public opinion war, some historians would endlessly debates about the strategic results of the attack and the failure of the Japanese high command to achieve better results. Indeed, perhaps too cautious Chūichi Nagumo was vividly critized to cancel a third attack, arguing a possible American much more aggressive defense, and having secured the main objective as to sink battleships.

As any old guard admiral, Nagumo still relied on the “big guns” to decide the fate of nations at sea. This air attack was merely a very lucky diversion that achieved to restore some numerical advantage to the Imperial Japanese Navy in prevision of a future battles and clearing combined operations throughout the pacific.

Such attack indeed would have targeted the massive nearby fuel tanks of the fleet, which were still unprotected. Without oil, what left of operational ships would have been rendered immobile, including crucially the three aircraft carriers that were not there (luckily for the Americans) this day.

If the attack had been bold, both public opinion and the old naval admiralty were indeed mistaken: Certainly, most battleships present (half of which the US Navy had) had been neutralized, and theoretically, the Pacific fleet had been eliminated.

No one at that time could have predicted what the few aircraft carriers absent that day could contribute in the hard fighting of 1942, and until 1943. Afterwards, the roller-coaster of American industry outclassed several times numerically the enemy and the conclusion was logical.

The battleships themselves were, for the most part, refloated, repaired, and completely rebuilt and modernized. They do returned to combat and participated in all subsequent engagements of the US Navy in the Pacific. Some naval historians went as far as thanking the Japanese to have “wrecked these old useless hulls” and open eyes and minds to the cause of aircraft carriers, like no event before, or since. Pearl Harbor was certainly the last nail in the battleship coffin.

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943 - History


HMS Spanker, Algerine-class minesweeper ( Navy Photos/Mark Teadham , click to enlarge ). The Battle of the British Coastal Convoy Routes lasted as long as the Battle of the Atlantic, if not longer. It was fought equally fiercely against aircraft, mines, E-boats, and in the beginning and at the end of the war against U-boats. Minesweepers of many types not only swept mines, but escorted literally thousands of convoys.

Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)


- Right through until May 1940 U-boats operated around the coasts of Britain and in the North Sea. Scotland's Moray Firth was often a focus for their activities. They attacked with both torpedoes and magnetic mines. Mines were also laid by surface ships and aircraft.

- British East Coast convoys (FN/FS) commenced between the Thames Estuary and the Firth of Forth in Scotland. Southend-on-Sea, the Thames peacetime seaside resort, saw over 2,000 convoys arrive and depart in the course of the war.

- Defensive mine laying began with an anti-U-boat barrier in the English Channel across the Straits of Dover, followed by an East Coast barrier to protect coastal convoy routes.

3rd - After Germany invaded Poland on the 1st, Britain and France demanded the withdrawal of German forces. The ultimatum expired and at 11.15am on the 3rd, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain broadcast to announce that Britain was at war with Germany. He formed a War Cabinet with Winston Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty.

Western Front - Advance units of the British Expeditionary Force were carried by destroyers from Portsmouth to France on the 4th September. By June 1940 half a million men had been carried in both directions without loss.

Monthly Loss Summary
33 British, Allied and neutral ships of 85,000 tons in UK waters.

8th - The anti-U-boat mine barrage in the Strait of Dover was completed and accounted for three U-boats, starting with "U-12" on the 8th.

13th - "U-40" was a lso mined and sunk in the Strait of Dover.

14th - Returning to Scapa Flow after guarding the Fair Isle passage during a recent sortie by battlecruiser "Gneisenau", and now at anchor, battleship "ROYAL OAK" was to rpedoed and sunk by "U-47" (Lt-Cdr Prien) in the early hours of the 14th with the loss of 833 men. The Home Fleet moved to Loch Ewe on the W Scottish coast

German Sea and Air Attacks - These were stepped up against merchant shipping and warships in British waters. In their first attack on British territory, Ju.88's bombed ships in the Firth of Forth, Scotland on the 16th October and slightly damagd crui sers "Southampton", "Edinburgh" and destroyer "Mohawk". Next day more Ju.88's struck at Scapa Flow and the old gunnery training battleship "Iron Duke" was b omb-damaged and had to be beached. German destroyers and later other surface vessels started laying mines off the British East Coast. Aircraft also attacked the East Coast convoy routes, but initially without success. In defence, it took some months for RAF Fighter Command to arrange effective sweeps, but there were too few AA guns to arm merchantmen.

24th - The third U-boat sunk in the Strait of Dover was "U-16" on the 24th. No more attempts were made to pass through the English Channel and U-boats were forced to sailed around the north of Scotland to reach the Atlantic.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 24 British, Allied and neutral ships of 63,000 tons in UK waters.

13th - As U-boat and surface ship-laid mines continued to inflict heavy losses on merchant ships and warships alike, cruiser minelayer "Adventure" and accompanying destroyer "BLANCHE" were min ed in the Thames Estuary. "Blanche" was a total loss. More serious casualties followed a week later.

21st - Recently completed light cruiser "Belfast" was b adly damaged in the Firth of Forth on a magnetic mine laid by "U-21". With her back broken and machinery mountings shattered she was out of action for three years.

21st - Destroyer "GIPSY" was also lost on mines laid by destroyers off the British east coast port of Harwich.

Magnetic Mines - German seaplanes also laid the first magnetic mines off the East Coast and dropped one on tidal flats at Shoeburyness in the Thames Estuary. It was defused on the 23rd November and recovered by Lt-Cdr Ouvry (awarded the George Cross), a vital step in the battle against a weapon which was causing heavy losses and long shipping delays. In November alone, 27 ships of 121,000 tons were sunk and for a time the Thames Estuary was virtually closed to shipping.

Merchant Shipping War - The first HN/ON convoys sailed between the Firth of Forth and Norway in November covered by the Home Fleet. The convoys were discontinued in April 1940.

Monthly Loss Summary
43 British, Allied and neutral ships of 156,000 tons in UK waters.

4th - Returning from the hunt for the German battle-cruisers after the sinking of "Rawalpindi" on the 23rd November, battleship "Nelson" was damaged by a mine laid by "U-31" off Loch Ewe, northwest Scotland.

12th - Battleship "Barham" was involved in two incidents. On the 12th in the North Channel separating Northern Ireland and Scotland, she collided with and sank "DUCHESS", one of her screening destroyers.

28th - Two weeks after colliding with "Duchess", "Barham" was tor pedoed and damaged off the Hebrides by "U-30" (Lt Cdr Lemp)

Merchant Shipping War - Trawlers were the main victims of the first successful attacks by German aircraft off the East Coast. By the end of March they had accounted for 30 vessels of 37,000 tons. Losses from mines remained high - 33 ships of 83,000 tons in December.

Monthly Loss Summary
66 British, Allied and Neutral ships of 152,000 tons in UK waters.

1st - AA cruiser “Coventry” was dam aged in an air raid on the Shetland Islands, north of Scotland.

19th - As destroyer “GRENVILLE” returned from contraband control off the Dutch coast she was lost on a destroyer-laid mine off the Thames Estuary.

21st - Searching for a reported U-boat off the Moray Firth, destroyer “EXMOUTH” was torpedoed by “ U-22” and lost with all hands.

Merchant Shipping War - U-boats were particularly active in the Moray Firth area off the Scottish coast and in the rest of the North Sea through until March 1940. In January alone they sank 14 ships - all neutrals.

Monthly Loss Summary
64 British, Allied and neutral ships of 179,000 tons in UK waters.

12th - “U-33” on a minelaying operation in the Firth of Clyde, eastern Scotland was sunk by minesweeper “Gleaner”.

18th - In an attack on Norway/UK convoy HN12, destroyer “DARING” was sunk by “U-23” in the northern North Sea, east of the Pentland Firth.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 46 British, Allied and neutral ships of 152,000 tons in UK waters.
- 3 German U-boats

16th - Home Fleet was bombed in Scapa Flow and heavy cruiser "Norfolk" damaged.

Merchant Shipping War - Since September 1939, 430,000 tons of shipping had been sent to the bottom by mines around the coasts of Britain - a loss rate only second to U-boats. Now the Royal Navy slowly countered magnetic mines with the introduction of ship-degaussing and 'LL' minesweeping gear. Although mines, contact, magnetic and later acoustic remained a threat throughout the war, they never again represented the danger of the first few months.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 43 British, Allied and neutral ships of 96,000 tons in UK waters

9th, Germany invades Denmark and Norway

Atomic Bomb - Just as the “phoney war” ended in Europe (it never existed at sea) the end of the war was foreshadowed when the British government established the Maud Committee to oversee nuclear research.

German Codes - The Bletchley Park Ultra programme was now decoding some Luftwaffe low-level Enigma codes, partly because of poor German security procedures. There was little evidence the hard-won information influenced the war over the next two violent months.

29th - Submarine “UNITY” was l ost in collision with a Norwegian merchantman off the northeast coast of England.

Monthly Loss Summary
54 British, Allied and neutral ships of 134,000 tons from all causes.

Following a 10th May House of Commons debate on the Norwegian campaign, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill assumed leadership. Albert V. Alexander succeeded him as First Lord of the Admiralty. The planned attack on Narvik would still go ahead, but that same day the German Blitzkrieg on Holland, Belgium and France was launched.

10th - Germany invaded Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg

26th May-4th June - Dunkirk Evacuation (Operation 'Dynamo')

31st - German “U-13” was believed sunk by sloop “Weston” off the English East Coast fishing port of Lowestoft.

Monthly Loss Summary
90 British, Allied and neutral ships of 231,000 tons from all causes.

Italy declares War on Britain and France

German Codes - 'Ultra' was now breaking the Luftwaffe Enigma codes with some regularity, and early in the month had its first major breakthrough when supporting evidence for the Knickebein navigation aid for bombers was obtained. Army codes were more secure because of the greater use of land lines for communications, and the Naval ones would not be penetrated until mid-1941.

30th - The first German troops landed on the Channel Islands, the only part of the British Empire occupied by the Germans throughout the war.

By early June 1940 the Royal Navy was taking steps to meet the threat of German invasion. Any invasion fleet would be attacked as it built up and before it could reach British shores. Four destroyer flotillas with cruiser support moved south, and escort and other vessels were on patrol offshore. The removal of these escorts from Atlantic convoy duties contributed to the sinking of many merchant ships, and eventually they returned to these duties. After setting out in early May, a heavily escorted convoy carrying Australian and New Zealand troops arrived in Britain.

Monthly Loss Summary
6 British, Allied and neutral ships of 45,000 tons from all causes.

Battle of Britain - Hitler decided that an invasion of Britain – “Operation Sealion” - was possible and ordered preliminary air attacks starting with English Channel shipping and ports. On the 16th, preparations got underway for the landing and assault operations scheduled to start in mid-August. On the 19th July Hitler offered to make peace with Britain. Three days later his overtures were rejected.

French Navy in Britain - T he two World War 1 French battleships "Courbet" and "Paris" and several destroyers and submarines, including the giant "Surcouf" were in British ports. On the 3rd they were boarded and seized, but not before there were casualties on both sides including three British and one French dead.

4th - Anchored off the SE breakwater within Portland Harbour, auxiliary AA ship "FOYLE BANK" (C apt H P Wilson) was attacked by 33 Ju87 divebombers and apparently hit by a total of 22 bombs. With one of the attackers shot down, she sank to the bottom with 176 men killed out of a total crew of 19 officers and 279 crew. + Leading Seaman Jack Mantle, gunner in the "Foyle Bank", continued in action although mortally wounded and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. According to one source she was sunk off Portland in attacks on Thames-out convoy 0A178 which also accounted for four merchantmen. Photographs of her hit and sinking bear out the Portland Harbour location.

16th - Cruiser "Glasgow" rammed and sank accompanying destroyer "IMOGEN" off the Pentland Firth, north of Scotland.

20th - Heavy German attacks continued on shipping and four destroyers (1-4) were bombed and sunk over the next few days, to add to the losses already sustained. The first was "BRAZEN" (1) on convoy duty off Dover,

27th - Two more destroyers were lost to air attack in British waters - "WREN" (2) off Aldeburgh on the English East Coast as she gave AA cover to minesweepers, and "CODRINGTON" (3) in Dover harbour.

29th - The fourth destroyer loss to bombing was "DELIGHT" (4) escorting a Channel convoy off Portland.

Merchant Shipping War - With the Germans now so close to British shores, new coastal convoy routes had to be established and integrated with overseas convoys. The Thames/Forth FN/FS convoys between south east England and Scotland continued along the East Coast. Two additional routes were instituted: Forth/Clyde, EN/WN, around the north of Scotland between the east and west coasts and Thames/English Channel, CW/CE, through the Strait of Dover to south and south west England. Channel losses were so heavy that CW/CE convoys were stopped for a while. On the 25th/26th, CW8 lost eight of its 21 ships to attacks by Stukas and E-boats. Four more merchantmen and two destroyers were damaged.

Monthly Loss Summary
67 British, Allied and neutral ships of 192,000 tons in UK waters.

Battle of Britain - The Luftwaffe switched its attacks from English Channel ports and shipping to RAF Fighter Command and on the 13th launched a major offensive - 'Adlertag' - especially against airfields. Damage to the airfields and installations, and losses in aircraft on both sides were heavy. Bombs dropped on London on the 24th led to RAF Bomber Command raiding Berlin the next night. By the end of the month the first possible date for 'Operation Sealion' had been put back to late September.

Royal Navy Codes - These were changed and for the first time operational signals were secure from German interception and decoding. it would be another three years before the convoy codes were made safe from the German B-Service.

Monthly Loss Summary
45 British, Allied and neutral ships of 163,000 tons in UK waters.

Battle of Britain - By now heavy units of the Home Fleet had come south from Scapa Flow ready to oppose the expected German invasion. The Blitz on Britain got under way on the 7th when major raids were launched against London. An attack on the 15th - subsequently known as Battle of Britain Day - led to heavy Luftwaffe losses, although nowhere near the claimed 185 aircraft: the Luftwaffe lost around 60 in exchange for 26 RAF fighters. Operation 'Sealion' was shortly postponed until further notice and invasion shipping started to disperse. The Blitz did not let up.

9th - Cruiser "Galatea" was dam aged by an acoustic mine in the Thames Estuary,

18th - Major bombing raids on Clydeside, Scotland badly damaged heavy cruiser "Sussex" as she refitted.

Monthly Loss Summary
39 British, Allied and neutral ships of 131,000 tons in UK waters.

Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester joined London as targets for German bombers in the Blitz. On the 12th the planned invasion of Britain was postponed until the next spring.

19th - Destroyer "VENETIA", of World War 1 vintage was sunk by a mine in the Thames Estuary while on patrol.

30th - Destroyer "STURDY", local Western Approaches escort for Halifax/UK convoy SC8, ran aground off the west coast of Scotland, on Tiree Island. She was a total loss.

Monthly Loss Summary
43 British, Allied and neutral ships of 132,000 tons in UK waters.

The Blitz continued with a particularly damaging raid on Coventry on the night of the 14th. Night-time attacks on London and other ports and cities carried on through to May. German cities also were targets for the RAF. Former Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain died on the 9th.

16th - Submarine "SWORDFISH", setting out on Bay of Biscay patrol, struck an enemy mine off the Isle of Wight, southern England and sank.

Monthly Loss Summary
48 British, Allied and neutral ships of 93,000 tons in UK waters.

Royal Navy - Adm Sir John Tovey succeeded Adm Forbes as Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet.

5th - The ex-American destroyer "CAMERON" undergoing refit in Portsmouth harbour was bombed and badly damaged. Not worth repairing, she was used for experimental purposes.

17th - Following repairs to bomb damage, destroyer "ACHERON" was carrying out trials off the Isle of Wight, southern England when she detonated a mine and went to the bottom.

Monthly Loss Summary
34 British, Allied and neutral ships of 83,000 tons in UK waters.

The Blitz on Britain continued with attacks on Bristol, Cardiff, London and Portsmouth during the month.

15th - Cruiser minelayer "Adventure" was damaged for the second time on a mine, this time on passage from Milford Haven, southwest Wales to Liverpool. The last time was off the Thames in November 1939 - just 14 crisis-filled months earlier.

Merchant Shipping War - Losses due to air attack and mines remained a major problem. Aircraft and E-boats had now added acoustic to the magnetic and moored contact mines in their armoury, but they never matched up to the threat that magnetic mines represented a year earlier.

Monthly Loss Summary
15 British, Allied and neutral ships of 37,000 tons in UK waters.

25th - Escort destroyer "EXMOOR" was the first of the 'Hunt' class to be lost. She was torpedoed off Lowestoft, east coast of England by German E-boat "S-30" while escorting Thames/Forth convoy FN417.

Monthly Loss Summary
26 British, Allied and neutral ships of 51,000 tons in UK waters.

Battle of the Atlantic Committee - O n 6th March 1941, faced with the mortal threat of the German U-boat and aircraft offensive in the Atlantic, Winston Churchill issued his famous Battle of the Atlantic directive.

Merchant Shipping War - Royal Navy motor gun-boats (MGB's) were entering service to combat E-boat attacks on East Coast convoys. Improved motor torpedo boats (MTBs) were also being built to attack German coastal shipping.

Monthly Loss Summary
73 British, Allied and neutral ships of 153,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
40 British, Allied and neutral ships of 99,000 tons in UK waters.

May 1941 included a breakthrough in the capture of German Enigma coding material, the hunt for and sinking of the "Bismarck", the fearful Royal Navy losses off Crete, continuing confirmation that Russia was about to be attacked by Germany, and further deterioration in relations with Japan. One can only imagine the thoughts and feelings of Prime Minister Churchill and his senior advisers as they responded day-by-day to these momentous developments.

Heavy raids on Belfast in Northern Ireland, the Scottish Clyde, Liverpool and especially London on the night of the 10th/11th marked the virtual end of the Blitz. The bulk of the Luftwaffe was now transferring east for the attack on Russia. RAF raids on Germany continued, and would grow as a major plank in British and Allied strategy for the defeat of Germany.

Germany - Rudolf Hess, Hitler's deputy, flew to Britain on his self-appointed peace mission. He was disowned by Germany and imprisoned in Britain.

Monthly Loss Summary
99 British, Allied and neutral ships of 101,000 tons in UK waters.

Germany Attacks Russia

Atomic Bomb - The report on nuclear research by the Maud Committee led to the setting up of a development programme by Imperial Chemical Industries. Code named 'Tube Alloys', it oversaw both atomic bomb and reactor work.

10th - Patrol sloop "PINTAIL" was mined off the Humber escorting Thames/Forth coastal convoy FN477.

Monthly Loss Summary
34 British, Allied and neutral ships of 86,000 tons in UK waters.

19th - Submarine "UMPIRE", working up and on passage north with an East Coast convoy, was rammed and sunk off Cromer by an armed trawler escorting a southbound convoy.

Monthly Loss Summary
18 British, Allied and neutral ships of 15,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
11 British, Allied and neutral ships of 20,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
13 British, Allied and neutral ships of 55,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
12 British, Allied and neutral ships of 83,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
20 British, Allied and neutral ships of 30,000 tons in UK waters.

Japan attacked Hong Kong, Malaya and Pearl Harbor

5th-6th December - Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary and Rumania.

7th-8th - By the 8th, Japan had declared war on Britain

Monthly Loss Summary
19 British, Allied and neutral ships of 57,000 tons in UK waters.

The first United States troops landed in Northern Ireland.

Merchant Shipping War - E-boats and aircraft continued to attack British coastal convoy routes directly and with magnetic and acoustic mines. Convoy escorts and minesweepers fought back, supported by RAF Fighter Command, but had their losses: 9th - Escorting a southbound East Coast convoy, destroyer "VIMIERA" was m ined and sunk in the Thames Estuary.

Monthly Loss Summary
14 British, Allied and neutral ships of 19,000 tons in UK waters.

11th-13th - The Channel Dash - The Brest Squadron with "Scharnhorst", "Gneisenau" and "Prinz Eugen" left late on the 11th for Germany. The aim was to pass through the Strait of Dover around noon the next day. A number of problems conspired to prevent the RAF standing patrols detecting their departure. The first intimation of the breakout came with a RAF report around 10.45 on the 12th as the German force steamed towards Boulogne. This left little time for attacks to be mounted. Soon after midday the first was made by five motor torpedo boats from Dover and six Swordfish torpedo-bombers of 825 Squadron (Lt-Cdr Esmonde), but no hits were made. All Swordfish were shot down. Lt-Cdr Eugene Esmonde was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

Battle of Britain - Operation 'Sealion', the planned German invasion of Britain was finally cancelled.

Air War - Air Marshal Harris was appointed C-in-C RAF Bomber Command for the all-out bombing campaign against Germany. This was Britain's main weapon in the war on the German homeland until late 1944.

Monthly Loss Summary
5 British, Allied and neutral ships of 11,000 tons in UK waters.

Combined Operations - Lord Louis Mountbatten was promoted Vice-Adm and appointed Chief of Combined Operations as planning continued for the raids on St Nazaire and later Dieppe.

15th - Destroyer "VORTIGERN" escorting Forth/Thames convoy FS749, was torpedoed and sunk by E-boat "S-104" off Cromer on the east coast of England.

Monthly Loss Summary
8 British, Allied and neutral ships of 15,000 tons in UK waters.

Air War - Following a successful RAF attack on the old city of Lubeck in March, the 'Baedeker' raids were carried out at Hitler's orders against historic British cities such as Bath and York.

Monthly Loss Summary
14 British, Allied and neutral ships of 56,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
14 British, Allied and neutral ships of 59,000 tons in UK waters

Monthly Loss Summary
5 British, Allied and neutral ships of 3,000 tons in UK waters.

Air War - The first USAAF aircraft, flying from British bases, joined RAF Bomber Command in an attack on occupied Europe.

Monthly Loss Summary
9 British, Allied and neutral ships of 23,000 tons in UK waters.

Raid on Dieppe: Operation 'Jubilee' - Some 6,000 troops, mainly Canadian, sailed from south coast of England ports on the 18th on the unsuccessful raid.

Monthly Loss Summary
For the first time since September 1939, no merchant ships were lost in UK waters in August 1942.

Monthly Loss Summary
1 merchant ship of 2,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
6 British, Allied and neutral ships of 13,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
5 British, Allied and neutral ships of 6,000 tons in UK waters.

3rd - Escort destroyer "PENYLAN", with Portsmouth/Bristol Channel convoy PW257, was sunk by E-boat "S-115" in the English Channel off Start Point.

Monthly Loss Summary
10 British, Allied and neutral ships of 9,000 tons in UK waters.

Air War - RAF Bomber Command by night and increasingly the USAAF by day mounted a growing attack on Germany and occupied Europe from British airfields.

Merchant Shipping War - German aircraft, E-boats and mines continued to threaten shipping around the coasts of Britain, but few ships were now being lost due to the combined effort of the RAF fighters, convoy escorts and minesweepers.

Monthly Loss Summary
4 British, Allied and neutral ships of 16,000 tons in UK waters.

23rd - On or around the 23rd, submarine "VANDAL" was l ost, cause unknown as she worked up in the Firth of Clyde area of Scotland.

Monthly Loss Summary
2 British, Allied and neutral ships of 5,000 tons in UK waters.

27th - Escort carrier "DASHER" worked up in the Firth of Clyde after repairs to damage sustained during the February Russian convoy JW53. An aviation gasoline explosion led to her total destruction.

Monthly Loss Summary
2 ships of 900 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
5 British, Allied and neutral ships of 10,000 tons in UK waters.

Royal Navy - After 2 1/2 years in post as C-in-C Home Fleet, Adm Tovey moved to command of The Nore. He was succeeded by Adm Sir Bruce Fraser.

Monthly Loss Summary
1 merchant ship of 1,600 tons in UK waters.

Air War - RAF bombers flew on to North Africa for the first time after attacking German targets. On their return to Britain they hit northern Italy.

Monthly Loss Summary
1 ship of 150 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
Until November 1943 only two small ships were lost in UK waters

Italy: Surrender and Invasion

Royal Navy - Adm of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord since 1939, suffered a stroke in August 1943 at the time of the Quebec conference. He had since resigned and died on 21st October - Trafalgar Day. Adm Fraser was offered the post as Winston Churchill's first choice, but declined, and Adm Sir Andrew B. Cunningham filled the Navy's most senior position on the 15th

23rd - Cruiser "Charybdis", accompanied by two fleet and four 'Hunt' class destroyers, sailed from Plymouth to intercept a German blockade runner off the coast of Brittany in Operation 'Tunnel'. The cruiser and one escort destroyer were sunk

Merchant Shipping War - E-boats and mines were still capable of taking a toll of coastal shipping. In the night of the 4th/5th, Channel convoy CW221 lost three ships off Beachy Head to E-boat attack, and later in the month two more were mined off Harwich.

Monthly Loss Summary
7 British, Allied and neutral ships of 13,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
1 merchant ship of 6,000 tons in UK waters.

Air War - From their many bases in Britain, RAF and USAAF operations against Germany and occupied Europe increased in intensity. In February the Luftwaffe carried out a number of raids on London in the 'Little Blitz'.

Monthly Loss Summary
8 British, Allied and neutral ships of 7,000 tons in UK waters.

5th - Escort carrier "Slinger" was mine d and damaged in the Thames Estuary off Sheerness.

20th - On patrol off Trevose Head, southwest England for a reported U-boat, destroyer "WARWICK" was torpedoed and sunk by "U-413" - the first enemy submarine to effectively penetrate British coastal waters since 1940.

Monthly Loss Summary
3 ships of 4,000 tons in UK waters.

20th - An ex-German submarine was lost. On the 20th "GRAPH" (the captured "U-570") broke her tow and ran aground on Islay Island off the west coast of Scotland.

Monthly Loss Summary
Between now and the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 only one small ship was lost in UK waters

Air War - A V-2 rocket crashed near Warsaw and resistance groups managed to arrange for the parts to be successfully airlifted to Britain.

Royal Navy - Adm Sir Henry Moore was appointed C-in-C, Home Fleet in succession to Adm Fraser who was to command the British Pacific Fleet.

Normandy Invasion: Operation 'Overlord' - After years of preparation the whole vast operation was mounted from Britain. From his headquarters outside Portsmouth on 1st June, Adm Ramsey took command of the immense armada of ships collected together for Operation 'Neptune', the naval part of 'Overlord'. The Naval Task Forces totalled 672 warships for assault convoy escort, minesweeping, shore bombardment, local defence, etc, and 4,126 major and minor landing ships and craft for initial assault and ferry purposes: a grand total of 4,798. Departure points from England for the assault forces, from west to east were:

Plymouth - one US infantry division as "Omaha" Beach follow-up
Dartmouth - US 7th Corps for "Utah" Beach
Portland - US 5th Corps for "Omaha" Beach
Southampton - British 30th Corps for "Gold" Beach
Portsmouth - Canadian forces of British 1st Corps for "Juno" Beach
Newhaven - British 1st Corps for "Sword" Beach
Thames area - British armoured division follow-up

The south coast of England also saw the construction and assembly of the 'Mulberry' harbour project of two artificial harbours and five 'Gooseberry' breakwaters including 400 'Mulberry' units totalling 1.5 million tons and including: (1) up to 6,000-ton 'Phoenix' concrete breakwaters (2) 160 tugs for towing and (3) 59 old merchantmen and warships to be sunk as blockships for the 'Gooseberries'. The Isle of Wight was the terminal for the PLUTO project specially equipped vessels which laid a Pipeline Under The Ocean to carry petroleum fuel across the English Channel to France. There was in fact more than one pipeline. The assault forces sailed from their ports of departure on the 5th to a position off the Isle of Wight, and then headed south through swept channels down 'The Spout' towards Normandy to land on the 6th. By the end of June nearly 660,000 men had been carried from Britain to France with their equipment and supplies.

In spite of the vast number of warships lying off the Normandy beaches, escorting the follow-up convoys and patrolling the Western Approaches, losses were comparatively few. British ships and attacking U-boats lost close to English shores included: 12th - battleship "Warspite", the ship that ended the war with the greatest number of Royal Navy battle honours, had left her gunfire support duties off the Normandy beaches to be fitted with replacement gun barrels. On passage to Rosyth, Scotland she was damaged by a mine of Harwich and was out of action until August. 13th - Escorting a follow-up convoy to the beaches, destroyer "BOADICEA" was sunk in the English Channel off Portland Bill by torpedo bombers. 15th - Frigate "BLACKWOOD" was to rpedoed off Brittany by "U-764" and sank in tow off Portland Bill. 15th - Frigate "MOURNE" was sunk by "U-767" off Land's End. 18th - Three days after sinking "Mourne", "U-767" was cau ght off the Channel Islands by destroyers "Fame", "Havelock" and "Inconstant" of 14th EG and sent to the bottom. 25th - Two U-boats were lost off Start Point in the English Channel - "U-1191" to frigates "Affleck" and "Balfour" of the 1st EG, and "U-269" to "Bickerton" (Capt Macintyre) of the 5th EG. 27th/29th - Two days after badly damaging corvette "PINK" (constructive total loss) on the 27th and sinking two merchantmen, "U-988" was c aught and sank off the Channel Islands by frigates "Cooke", "Domett", "Duckworth" and "Essington" of 3rd EG and a RAF Liberator of No 224 Squadron.

Air War - On the 13th the first V-1 flying bomb landed on London at the start of a three-month campaign against southeast England. Amongst the weapons shortly used against them was Britain's first jet fighter, the Gloster Meteor.

Merchant Shipping War - Until the closing days of the war, the schnorkel U-boats operating in UK waters were especially worrying. When submerged as invariably they were, detection from the air was difficult even with 10cm wavelength radar, and location usually had to wait until after they had attacked. Then they suffered badly, usually to the surface warship escorts.

Monthly Loss Summary
19 British, Allied and neutral ships of 75,000 tons in UK waters.

U-boat Operations against the Normandy Beachhead - Those U-boats that did get through the Channel defences sank and damaged a number of ships, but a number were lost off southern England: 6th - In a convoy attack off Beachy Head, "U-678" was lost to Canadian destroyers "Ottawa" and "Kootenay" and British corvette "Statice". 18th - Frigate "Balfour" on patrol southeast of Start Point sank "U-672". 21st - Escorting frigates "Curzon" and Ekins" sank "U-212" off Beachy Head. 26th - As "U-214" tried to lay mines off Start Point, she was sunk by frigate "Cooke" of the 3rd EG. 31st - "U-333" was d estroyed to the west of the Scilly Islands by sloop "Starling" and frigate "Loch Killin" of the 2nd EG using the new Squid. This marked the first success with this ahead-throwing A/S weapon firing three large mortar bombs.

Monthly Loss Summary
8 British, Allied and neutral ships of 19,000 tons in UK waters.

Western Front - Canadian First Army headed along the coast to capture the Channel ports and nearby V-1 "Buzz-bomb" launch sites. Lack of supplies, particularly fuel, started to become a major problem, and capturing Antwerp, Belgium was a matter of the highest priority.

British Convoy Routes - As the German Biscay bases became untenable, the South Western Approaches to the British Isles were opened to Allied convoys for the first time in four years. West and North Africa/UK convoys SL167 and MKS58 were the first to benefit from the shortened journey.

U-boat Operations - U-boats passing through the Bay of Biscay and operating in the Channel and its approaches suffered badly at the hands of the air and sea patrols and escorts. More Allied ships and German U-boats went to the bottom off British coasts: 4th - Escort destroyer "Wensleydale" and frigate "Stayner" on patrol off Beachy Head, sank "U-671" shortly after she sailed from Boulogne. 8th - Canadian corvette "REGINA" was s unk off Trevose Head, north Cornwall by "U-667" as she escorted Bristol Channel convoy EBC66. 15th - Attacking a convoy to the south of the Isle of Wight, "U-741" was sunk by corvette "Orchis". 20th - After sinking one merchantman from a convoy off Beachy Head, "U-413" was counter-attacked and lost to destroyers "Forester", "Vidette" and escort destroyer "Wensleydale". 21st/22nd - Off the Isle of Wight, "U-480" sank Canadian corvette "ALBERNI" on the 21st and British fleet minesweeper "LOYALTY" next day.

Monthly Loss Summary
12 British, Allied and neutral ships of 55,000 tons in UK waters.

Start of British Isles Inshore Campaign

1st - On passage into the Bristol Channel as part of the U-boat Inshore Campaign, "U-247" was s unk close to Lands End by patrolling Canadian frigates "St John" and "Swansea" of the 9th EG.

Air War - Although Allied bombers continued to bomb V-1 installations along the Channel coast of France, it was only when Canadian First Army overran the sites that London and the southeast of England saw the last one land. By then nearly 10,000 launchings of the sub-sonic pilotless "cruise missile" had inflicted 25,000 dead and wounded civilian casualties. Then on the 8th, the first supersonic V-2 rocket hit London in a deadly campaign that lasted for over six months, and against which there was no defence.

27th - Ex-US destroyer "ROCKINGHAM" was t he last of her class to be lost while flying the White Ensign, when she hit a mine off Aberdeen and went down in the North Sea. At the time she was acting as a target ship for aircraft training.

Monthly Loss Summary
3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 21,000 tons in UK waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
2 British, Allied and neutral ships of 1,700 tons in UK waters

21st - Escort destroyer "WENSLEYDALE" was badl y damaged in collision with an LST in the Thames Estuary and placed in reserve.

Monthly Loss Summary
3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 9,000 tons in UK waters.

British Isles Inshore Campaign - The inshore campaign by U-boats gained some successes, but at a cost: 18th - "U-1209" ran aground near Lands End at the far tip of SW England and was wrecked. 30th - Allied aircraft now had few successes against the schnorkel-equipped U-boats. As an exception, "U-772" was lost off Portland Bill to a RCAF Leigh Light Wellington of No 407 Squadron.

Monthly Loss Summary
18 British, Allied and neutral ships of 86,000 tons in UK waters.

Royal Navy - Adm Sir Bertram Ramsey, Allied Naval Commander, Expeditionary Force, architect of the Dunkirk evacuation and with major responsibility for the North African and Sicily landings as well as command of Operation 'Neptune', was killed in an air crash in France on the 2nd. Vice-Adm Sir Harold Burrough succeeded him.

British Isles Inshore Campaign - As the campaign continued, there were losses on both sides: 15th/16th - Off the Clyde, Scotland on the 15th, "U-482" torpedoed a merchantman and badly damaged escort carrier "THANE" (not repaired and laid up) ferrying aircraft from Northern Ireland. After a long hunt the U-boat was sunk next day by frigate "Loch Craggie" and sloops "Amethyst", "Hart", "Peacock" and "Starling" of the 22nd EG. 21st - After torpedoing a merchant ship from a Thames/ Bristol Channel convoy, "U-1199" was sunk close to Lands End by escorting destroyer "lcarus" and corvette "Mignonette". 26th - "U-1172" severely damaged frigate "MANNERS" (constructive total loss) off the Isle of Man and was sunk in the counter-attack by sister ships "Aylmer", "Bentinck" and "Calder" of the 4th and 5th EGs. 27th - Further south in St George's Channel, and after attacking Halifax/UK convoy HX322, "U-1051" was sunk by frigates "Bligh", "Keats" and "Tyler" of the 5th EG.

Merchant Shipping War - E-boats and small battle units continued operating out of Holland against Allied shipping in the North Sea and English Channel, and were now joined by Seehunde midget submarines. The new craft enjoyed some success, but mines remained the biggest problem for the Allies at sea. Allied air and sea patrols and minesweeping kept all these dangers under control.

Monthly Loss Summary
12 British, Allied and neutral ships of 47,000 tons in UK waters.

British Isles Inshore Campaign - U-boats still took a steady toll of shipping in the inshore campaign and sank two corvettes, but a number were lost, mainly to the Royal Navy: 16th - Attacking Scottish coastal convoy WN74 off the Moray Firth, "U-309" was lost to Canadian frigate "St John" of 9th EG. 20th - "U-208" attacked convoy HX337 in St George's Channel between SE Ireland and Wales, and sank escorting corvette "VERVAIN". The U-boat was then hunted down and destroyed by sloop "Amethyst" of 22nd EG. "Amethyst" became famous in "The Amethyst Incident" involving the Chinese People's Army during the Chinese Civil War.

22nd - Off Falmouth, Bristol Channel/Thames convoy BTC76 was attacked by "U-1004" and Canadian corvette "TRENTONIAN" was sent to the bottom of the English Channel. 24th - During the inshore campaign, 10 U-boats were sunk in the Lands End area, three in February. On the 24th "U-480" sank a merchant ship from coastal convoy BTC78 and was then hunted down and finished off by frigates "Duckworth" and "Rowley" of the 3rd EG. 27th - Three days later "U-1018" attacked BTC81 to be sunk by frigate "Loch Fada" of the 2nd EG. On the same day "U-327" was de tected by a USN liberator and sunk by "Loch Fada" again, working with "Labuan" and "Wild Goose".

Monthly Loss Summary
19 British, Allied and neutral ships of 49,000 tons in UK waters.

British Isles Inshore Campaign - The inshore campaign continues. 7th - "U-1302" successfully attacked Halifax/UK convoy SC167 in St George's Channel, but after a long search off the coast of western Wales was sunk by Canadian frigates "La Hulloise", "Strathadam" and "Thetford Mines" of the 25th EG. 10th - Deep minefields laid by the Royal Navy to protect UK inshore waters from the U-boats claimed two victims. On the 10th, "U-275" was lost in the English Channel off Beachy Head. 12th - Between now and the 29th, three more U-boats went down close to Lands End, starting with "U-683" to frigate "Loch Ruthven" and sloop "Wild Goose" of the 2nd EG. 14th - South African frigate "Natal" on passage off the Firth of Forth, Scotland in the North Sea sank "U-714". 22nd - "U-296" was a lso sunk off the north coast of Ireland - by RAF aircraft of No 120 Squadron. 26th - The second loss off Lands End was "U-399", sunk by frigate "Duckworth" and other ships of 3rd EG. The same Group accounted for the third U-boat off Lands End on the 29th. 27th - The frigates of 21st EG were split into two divisions, and sank three U-boats in the Hebrides area. On the 27th, "U-965" was su nk by Hedgehog off the northern end of the islands by the 'first' division - "Conn", accompanied by "Deane" and "Rupert". The same day further south, "U-722" went d own to the 'second' division - "Byron", "Fitzroy" and "Redmill". 29th - "U-246" torpedoed and badly damaged Canadian frigate "TEME" (constructive total loss), but was then hunted down and sunk by "Duckworth" and the 3rd EG off Lands End. 30th - Frigates "Conn", "Deane" and "Rupert", the 'first' division of 21st EG and still off the northern end of the Hebrides, sank "U-1021".

Air War - The last V-2 landed on London on the 27th, by which time 1,000 rockets had killed and wounded nearly 10,000 people in southeast England.

Monthly Loss Summary
23 British, Allied and neutral ships of 84,000 tons in UK waters.

U-boat Campaign - Throughout the month over 40 U-boats were lost in and around the waters of northwest Europe. The Royal Navy was directly involved in 12 of the sinkings, including: 5th - "U-1169" went do wn off the southeast coast of Ireland in a deep-laid minefield in St George's Channel. 6th - Two U-boats were sunk in Channel operations. The first, "U-1195" sank a ship from a convoy off the Isle of Wight, and was lost to old escorting destroyer "Watchman". 12th - Two more were lost in the Irish Sea northwest of Anglesey, Wales. "U-1024" was d isabled by the Squid of frigate "Loch Glendhu" of 8th EG. Boarded by "Loch More", she was taken in tow but foundered. 15th - The second U-boat sunk in Channel operations was "U-1063". Attacking a convoy off Start Point, she was sent to the bottom off Land's End by frigate "Loch Killin" of 17th EG. 16th - "U-1274" attacked Forth/Thames convoy FS1784 off St Abbs Head, SE Scotland, sinking one ship, but was then lost to destroyer "Viceroy" of the escort. 30th - The second loss in the Irish Sea was "U-242" detected by a RAF Sunderland of No 201 Squadron and sunk by destroyers "Havelock" and "Hesperus" of the 14th EG.

Monthly Loss Summary
14 British, Allied and neutral ships of 50,000 tons in UK waters.

7th - U-boats gained their last success when Type XXIII coastal boat "U-2336" sank merchantmen "Avondale Park" and "Sneland" off the Firth of Forth.

8th - Operational U-boats were ordered to surface and sailed for Allied ports flying a black flag of surrender. Most made for the UK, although a few reached the US.

9th - The first of over 150 surrendered boats started to arrive in Britain, but more than 200 were scuttled. Of those surrendering, a quarter were taken over by the Allied powers and in Operation 'Deadlight', the remainder sunk by the Royal Navy in the Atlantic off Northern Ireland through to January 1946.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 2 merchant ships of 5,000 tons in UK waters.

Winston Churchill's Conservative Party was swept from power and the Labour Party under Clement Attlee took over the reins of Britain's wartime Coalition Government.

Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943 - History


BRITISH and COMMONWEALTH NAVIES at the Beginning and End of World War 2

"King George V" battleship HMS Anson (CyberHeritage , click to enlarge ) in 1945. Laid down in 1937 and still the measure of naval power at the start of World War 2. By 1945, the battleship and its large gun had been superseded by the aircraft carrier and its aircraft.

Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

. the heart of the Royal Navy was its centuries old traditions and 200,000 officers and men including the Royal Marines and Reserves. At the very top as professional head was the First Sea Lord, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound.

Royal Navy Warship Strength

The Royal Navy, still the largest in the world in September 1939, included:

15 Battleships & battlecruisers, of which only two were post-World War 1. Five 'King George V' class battleships were building.

7 Aircraft carriers. One was new and five of the planned six fleet carriers were under construction. There were no escort carriers.

66 Cruisers, mainly post-World War 1 with some older ships converted for AA duties. Including cruiser-minelayers, 23 new ones had been laid down.

184 Destroyers of all types. Over half were modern, with 15 of the old 'V' and 'W' classes modified as escorts. Under construction or on order were 32 fleet destroyers and 20 escort types of the 'Hunt' class.

60 Submarines, mainly modern with nine building.

45 escort and patrol vessels with nine building, and the first 56 'Flower' class corvettes on order to add to the converted 'V' and 'W's' and 'Hunts'. However, there were few fast, long-endurance convoy escorts.

Included in the Royal Navy totals were:

Royal Australian Navy - six cruisers, five destroyers and two sloops

Royal Canadian Navy - six destroyers

Royal Indian Navy - six escort and patrol vessels

Royal New Zealand Navy, until October 1941 the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy - two cruisers and two sloops.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The Fleet was reasonably well-equipped to fight conventional surface actions with effective guns, torpedoes and fire control, but in a maritime war that would soon revolve around the battle with the U-boat, the exercise of air power, and eventually the ability to land large armies on hostile shores, the picture was far from good.

ASDIC, the RN's answer to the submarine, had limited range and was of little use against surfaced U-boats, and the stern-dropped or mortar-fired depth charge was t he only reasonably lethal anti-submarine weapon available. The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) recently returned to full control of the Navy, was equipped with obsolescent aircraft, and in the face of heavy air attack the Fleet had few, modern anti-aircraft guns. Co-operation with the RAF was l imited although three Area Combined Headquarters had been established in Britain. Coastal Command, the RAF's maritime wing, had only short range aircraft, mainly for reconnaissance. And there was little combined operations capability.

On the technical side, early air warning radars were fitted to a small number of ships. The introduction by the Germans of magnetic mines found the Royal Navy only equipped to sweep moored contact mines. Finally, the German Navy's B-Service could read the Navy's operational and convoy codes.

Primary Maritime Tasks

These were based on the assumption Britain and France were actively allied against the European Axis powers of Germany and Italy. The Royal Navy would be responsible for the North Sea and most of the Atlantic, although the French would contribute some forces. In the Mediterranean, defence would be shared between both Navies, but as it happened, Benito Mussolini's claimed ownership of the Mediterranean - his 'Mare Nostrum' - did not have to be disputed for another nine months.

Threats to and Responses by the Royal Navies - September 1939

OBJECTIVE 1 - Defence of trade routes, and convoy organisation and escort, especially to and from Britain.

- The first overseas convoys left Britain via the South Western Approaches. From the Thames they sailed through the English Channel (OA) and from Liverpool through the Irish Sea (OB). Later in September, convoys left Freetown, Sierra Leone (SL), Halifax, Nova Scotia (HX) and Gibraltar (HG) for the UK.

- In the North Atlantic anti-submarine escorts were provided from Britain out to 200 miles west of Ireland (15W) and to the middle of the Bay of Biscay. For a few hundred miles from Halifax, cover was given by Canadian warships. The same degree of protection was given to ships sailing from other overseas assembly ports.

- Cruisers and (shortly) armed merchant cruisers sometimes took over as ocean escorts. Particularly fast or slow ships from British, Canadian and other assembly ports sailed independently, as did the many hundreds of vessels scattered across the rest of the oceans. Almost throughout the war it was the independently-routed ships and the convoy stragglers that suffered most from the mainly German warships, raiders, aircraft and above all submarines that sought to break the Allied supply lines.

OBJECTIVE 2 - Detection and destruction of surface raiders and U-boats.

- Fleet aircraft carriers were employed on anti-U-boat sweeps in the Western Approaches.

OBJECTIVE 3 - Maritime blockade of Germany and contraband control.

- Closer to Germany the first mines were laid by Royal Navy destroyers in the approaches to Germany's North Sea bases.

OBJECTIVE 4 - Defence of own coasts.

- British East Coast convoys (FN/FS) commenced between the Thames Estuary and the Firth of Forth in Scotland. Southend-on-Sea, the Thames peacetime seaside resort, saw over 2,000 convoys arrive and depart in the course of the war.

- Defensive mine laying began with an anti-U-boat barrier in the English Channel across the Straits of Dover, followed by an East Coast barrier to protect coastal convoy routes.

OBJECTIVE 5 - Escort troops to France and between Britain, the Dominions and other areas under Allied control.

Belligerent Warship Strengths in European Waters & Atlantic Ocean

by Dr. Good Heart
A Green Road Journal

Project Paper Clip CIA Smuggled In And Hired Thousands Of Nazis And Hundreds of War Criminals To Develop And Set Off Nuclear Atom Bombs On US Soil, US Corporations Built And Supported Hitler War Machine


SEPTEMBER 14, 2016

In 1945, Gehlen surrendered to The Army Counter Intelligence Corp (CIC), and upon interrogation, he offered up his files and network of spies to the United States in exchange for his freedom. The files were dug up, his men in the Allied POW camps were transferred, and he was flown to Fort Hunt in Virginia in secret. It was there that a deal was hammered out for Gehlen to return to Germany, re-establish his intelligence network, and serve the United States Government. Thus the Gehlen Organization was born.

The Gehlen Organization, or the “Org” as it was referred to, was then grafted on to the fledgling CIA at its creation in 1947, and it was often the only eyes and ears on the ground in many Soviet bloc countries after the war. It was through the Gehlen Organization that many hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of SS, SD, and Gestapo men came to work for the United States Government. It was the intelligence reports from these Nazi men, that wound up comprising an estimated 70% of all U.S. intelligence on the Soviet Union during the early part of the Cold War.

In 1956, the Org was handed over to West Germany and Gehlen became the first President of the Federal Intelligence Service (BND). He held this post until 1968 before being forced out due to a combination of factors. At his retirement he received one of the highest civilian grade pensions from the West German Republic, and allegedly, a pension from the CIA…

Files hosted on

Operation Paperclip

A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas

Operation Paperclip was theUnited States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program in which more than 1,500 Germans,[1] primarily scientists but also engineers and technicians, were brought to the United States from Nazi Germany for government employment starting in 1945 and increasing in the aftermath of World War II.[2] It was conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) and in the context of the burgeoning Cold War.

One purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific expertise and knowledge to the Soviet Union[2] and the United Kingdom,[3] as well as to inhibit post-war Germany from redeveloping its military research capabilities. A related course of action was taken by the US with regard to Japanese human experimenters employed from Unit 731. The Soviet Union had the somewhat similar yet much more limited Operation Osoaviakhim.[4]

The JIOA’s recruitment of German scientists began after the Allied victory in Europe on May 8, 1945, but U.S. President Harry Truman did not formally order the execution of Operation Paperclip until August 1945. Truman’s order expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism.” However, those restrictions would have rendered ineligible most of the leading scientists whom the JIOA had identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun, Kurt H. Debus, and Arthur Rudolph, as well as physician Hubertus Strughold, each earlier classified as a “menace to the security of the Allied Forces.”[5]

The JIOA worked independently to circumvent President Truman’s anti-Nazi order and the Allied Potsdam and Yalta agreements, creating false employment and political biographies for the scientists. The JIOA also expunged the scientists’ Nazi Party memberships and regime affiliations from the public record. Once “bleached” of their Nazism, the scientists were grantedsecurity clearances by the U.S. government to work in the United States. The project’s operational name of Paperclip was derived from the paperclips used to attach the scientists’ new political personae to their “US Government Scientist” JIOA personnel files.[6]

Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa (June–December 1941), the Siege of Leningrad (September 1941 – January 1944), Operation Nordlicht (“Northern Light”, August–October 1942), and the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942 – February 1943). The failed conquest had depleted German resources, and its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich) against the Red Army‘s westward counterattack. By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists, engineers, and technicians they returned to work in research and development to bolster German defense for a protracted war with the USSR. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in northeast coastal Germany.[7][8]

Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers.
— Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemünde to Canaveral

The Nazi government’s recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists, engineers, and technicians, then ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association), recorded the names of the politically cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work.[9]

In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet the list subsequently reached MI6, who transmitted it to U.S. Intelligence.[10][11] Then U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogatedWernher von Braun, Nazi Germany’s premier rocket scientist, headed Major Staver’s list.[12]


V-2 rocket launching, Peenemünde, on the north-east Baltic German coast. (1943)In Operation Overcast, Major Staver’s original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation’s purpose. On May 22, 1945, he transmitted to U.S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes’s telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most “important for [the] Pacific war” effort.[11] Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany.Beginning on July 19, 1945, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the “Camp Overcast” name of the scientists’ quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in November 1945.[13] Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.[11][12][14]Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as “worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans.” In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers.[15]Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a military-intelligence black site in Fort Hunt, Virginia, in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the international community, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1929, which the United States had ratified.[16] Although Von Braun’s interrogators pressured him, he was not tortured however, in 1944 another prisoner of war, U-boat Captain Werner Henke, had been shot and killed while climbing the fence at Fort Hunt.[17] Capture and detention

The Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (heavy black line) and the zone from which British and American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The provincial boundaries are those of Nazi Germany, before the present Länder (federal states) were established.Early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (CIOS). This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific, military and industrial installations (and their employees) for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan finding out what technology had been passed on to Japan and finally to halt the research.

A project to halt the research was codenamed “Project Safehaven”, and it was not initially targeted against the Soviet Union rather the concern was that German scientists might emigrate and continue their research in countries such as Spain, Argentina or Egypt, all of which had sympathized with Nazi Germany. In order to avoid the complications involved with the emigration of German scientists, the CIOS was responsible for scouting and kidnapping high profile individuals for the deprivation of technological advancements in nations outside of the US.

Much U.S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which by July 1, 1945, would become part of the Soviet Occupation zone. Many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U.S. ability to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from said expertise, the United States instigated an “evacuation operation” of scientific personnel from Saxony and Thuringia, issuing orders such as:

On orders of Military Government you are to report with your family and baggage as much as you can carry tomorrow noon at 1300 hours (Friday, 22 June 1945) at the town square in Bitterfeld. There is no need to bring winter clothing. Easily carried possessions, such as family documents, jewelry, and the like should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest railway station. From there you will travel on to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter how large your family is.

By 1947 this evacuation operation had netted an estimated 1,800 technicians and scientists, along with 3,700 family members. Those with special skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers, such as one code-named DUSTBIN,[18] to be held and interrogated, in some cases for months.

A few of the scientists were gathered up in Operation Overcast, but most were transported to villages in the countryside where there were neither research facilities nor work they were provided stipends and forced to report twice weekly to police headquarters to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff directive on research and teaching stated that technicians and scientists should be released “only after all interested agencies were satisfied that all desired intelligence information had been obtained from them”.

On November 5, 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to consider the status of the evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the United States, and the “possible violation by the US of laws of war or Rules of Land Warfare”.

The OMGUS director of Intelligence R. L. Walsh initiated a program to resettle the evacuees in the Third World, which the Germans referred to as General Walsh’s “Urwald-Programm” (jungle program), however this program never matured. In 1948, the evacuees received settlements of 69.5 million Reichsmarks from the U.S., a settlement that soon became severely devalued during the currency reform that introduced the Deutsche Mark as the official currency of western Germany.

John Gimbel concludes that the United States put some of Germany’s best minds on ice for three years, therefore depriving the German recovery of their expertise.[19]


German scientists and engineers repatriated from Sukhumi in February 1958. (see Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union)In May 1945, the U.S. Navy “received in custody” Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the Hs 293 missile for two years, he first worked at the Special Devices Center, at Castle Gould and at Hempstead House, Long Island, New York in 1947, he moved to the Naval Air Station Point Mugu.[20] In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, head of the Rocket Branch of the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Army’s Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) arrived at Fort Strong, located on Long Island in Boston harbor:Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.[11] Beginning in late 1945, three rocket-scientist groups arrived in the United States for duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, and atWhite Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as “War Department Special Employees”.[7]:27[13]In 1946, the United States Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel scientists at a Fischer-Tropsch chemical plant in Louisiana, Missouri.[21]

In early 1950, legal U.S. residency for some of the Project Paperclip specialists was effected through the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico thus, Nazi scientists legally entered the United States from Latin America.[7]:226[12]

Eighty-six aeronautical engineers were transferred to Wright Field, where the United States had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment captured under Operation Lusty (Luftwaffe SecretTechnology).[22]

The United States Army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists – including the physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein, Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Lehovec the physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars, and Eberhard Both the geophysicist Helmut Weickmann the optician Gerhard Schwesinger and the engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Guenther, and Hans Ziegler.[23]

In 1959, 94 Operation Paperclip men went to the United States, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand.[20] Throughout its operations to 1990, Operation Paperclip imported 1,600 men, as part of the intellectual reparations owed to the United States and the UK, some $10 billion in patents and industrial processes.[20][24]

During the decades after they were included in Operation Paperclip, some scientists were investigated because of their activities during World War II. Arthur Rudolph was deported in 1984, but not prosecuted, and West Germany granted him citizenship.[25]



Many Nazis, some of whom committed war atrocities, such as overseeing death camps, were imported into the USA. The US government was willing to hide those Nazi secrets and their ID’s from Americans. The US government was willing to hire and pay money to anyone who had what they wanted, such as nuclear information. Thousands of 110% Nazi’s were imported into the USA after the end of World War II. What effect did the importation of these radical individuals have on the US, and on the for profit military industrial complex?



A Top Secret program called Project Paper Clip was put into effect after WWII by the CIA. War criminals were supposed to be avoided and excluded from this super secret nuclear information import of Nazis into this US program. But when most of the Nazi scientists and other experts failed this war criminals test, the CIA recruiters simply falsified the Nazi’s files and sent those to the State Dept. urging them to hire these criminals, just so that the Soviets could not have them.




Hitler Financed, Supplied By 100 US Corporations Coca Cola, Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Chase Manhattan Bank, Dow Chemical, Brown Brothers Harriman, Woolworth, Alcoa, Ford, GM, IBM, Standard Oil, BBH Prescott Bush

Top 10 American Companies that Aided the Nazis — TopTenzNet
VIDEO 8 min.


Hitler’s American Business Partners


The Oligarchical Bush Family of Generational Treason
VIDEO: 45 min.

The Oligarchical Bush Family of Generational Treason from the Nazi SS and Adolf Hitler to Osama bin Laden. The journalist in this video is providing factually true evidence. The oligarchical Bush family of generational treason reaching back to the namesake of the two Bush presidents, George Herbert Walker. The way we do anything is the way we do everything.


Isn’t the US acting much like the Nazis did, in a way that mimics their actions of global militarism and global conquest? The US has thousands of military bases all around the world. The US often expresses it’s power in a way that does not lead to healthy democracy in the country touched by that power.





Hitler rose to power with the help of bankers and corporations from the US and the UK. He could not have built up his huge war machine except with their help and support. This support continued on even into the days AFTER the US and UK declared war on Germany. Corporations and bankers do not care who wins or loses in war, and they make sure that they make a PROFIT off of both sides. War is very profitable, much more so than ordinary commerce. For the same reason, bankers are also involved in drug money laundering, because it is VERY PROFITABLE.

The appearance of freedom and democracy is maintained on the surface, so that people can believe in something. Meanwhile, underneath, these very dark forces intent on destruction, killing, suffering, racism, and profit are holding all of the reigns of power. The 1 percent manipulate the news, events, and create false flag attacks if needed, in order to start wars that they then profit from, ON BOTH SIDES.

Medical doctors, Christian churches and psychiatrists were all perverted and corrupted, allowing Nazism to flourish in Germany. They are all vulnerable to abuse, misuse and corruption, especially when lots of money is involved, as it is today. The fact is that Nazism or Fascism is not an isolated extreme example, but rather, it is a common place, every day thing that happens all around the world, especially in countries where huge corporate monopolies exert huge financial, political and mass media pressure on every profession and every community.

The Science Of Sustainable Health needs to be taught in all schools, from grade school to college and graduate universities. The consequence of not doing this is the extinction of the human race, as it races towards doom, imposed by short term PROFIT thinking with no thoughts regarding consequences of actions taken in haste and only for money.

The American Indians believed that anyone who had greed/short term profit as a motivation in life was mentally ill, and they were right.

Massive earthquake strikes Haiti

On January 12, 2010, Haiti is devastated by a massive earthquake. It drew an outpouring of support from around the globe but the small nation has yet to fully recover.

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, due largely to its history of colonization, occupation and exploitation by Spain, France and the United States. It also has a history of seismic activity�vastating earthquakes were recorded there in 1751, 1770, 1842 and 1946. The island of Hispaniola, which Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic, lies mostly between two large tectonic plates, the North American and the Caribbean. The Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince practically straddles this fault-line. Despite this knowledge and warnings from seismologists that another earthquake was likely in the near future, the country&aposs poverty meant that infrastructure and emergency services were not prepared to handle the effects of a natural disaster.

The 2010 earthquake struck just before 5 pm. The tremor was felt as far away as Cuba and Venezuela, but the epicenter of the 7.0-magnitude quake was just 16 miles away from Port-au-Prince. Eight aftershocks followed the same day, and at least 52 were recorded over the next two weeks. The effects were catastrophic. All of the capital’s hospitals, as well as three facilities run by Doctors Without Borders, sustained serious damage, as did Port-au-Prince&aposs airport and its seaport, which was rendered inoperable. Telecoms services were greatly affected, major roads were rendered impassible and close to 300,000 buildings, most of which were residences, were damaged beyond repair. The National Assembly building and Port-au-Prince Cathedral were also destroyed.

The human toll was horrific and remains incalculable. Some estimates put the number of deaths around 40-50,000, while the Haitian government estimated that over 316,000 died, but all authorities acknowledge that the death toll is impossible to truly count. Something approaching 1 million people were displaced.

News and images of the quake, including photos of the heavily-damaged National Palace, quickly activated a massive humanitarian response. The Dominican Republic and Dominican Red Cross responded immediately with emergency supplies and airlifts to Dominican hospitals. Nations from every continent contributed money, supplies, and manpower. Port-au-Prince&aposs airport operated around the clock but could not accommodate all the arrivals. Foreign air forces, including those of the United States and Great Britain, airlifted survivors to hospital ships off the coast, and some supplies were dropped to the island by parachute. The "Hope for Haiti" telethon on January 22nd broke records by raising $58 million in one day.

Though the humanitarian response was immediate and overwhelming, Haiti&aposs crippled infrastructure made the delivery of aid difficult. The situation was still classified as an emergency six months after the earthquake. A million people on the island lived in tents, and a cholera epidemic that began in October claimed over 3,300 more lives. Whether or not Haiti has yet fully recovered is a matter of debate, but the effects of the earthquake were palpable for the next decade. 

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos