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Can you help identify a pistol believed to be Ottoman Empire (Turkish)?

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Trying to identify a pistol believed to be Ottoman Empire (Turkish


Can you help identify a pistol believed to be Ottoman Empire (Turkish)? - History

A common misconception blames Turkish nationalism as the cause of Armenian massacres in Turkey however, Turkish nationalism did not exist before the 1920s and sometimes Ottoman nationalism is confused with Turkish nationalism. Starting in the 1920s, Turkish nationalism was founded upon the determination of the Turks to survive World War I. The Sevrés Treaty and Sykes-Picot agreements were part of the Entente Powers' & their Anti-Turkish Nationalist allies' plans to divide the crumbling Ottoman Empire.

As a response to Anti-Turkish Nationalism that had begun to ethnically cleanse Anatolia, Turks united behind Mustafa Kemal Ataturk to defend themselves from utter destruction, brought upon various rebellions in the Ottoman lands and the Entente powers marching their armies across Anatolia guided by hundreds of thousands of local non-Muslims sick of Ottoman rule.

When it was Ottoman land, the Entente powers and their local allies fought side by side. After the Bolshevik revolution, Russia had to retreat. After World War I was settled, the British and French retreated knowing they don't want to prolong world war I and broke their promises of rich kingdoms carved from Ottoman land to the local non-Muslims. Ataturk and the Turks of course, had an easier time fighting rebels rather than consistent pressure from European powers.

Is Nationalism rational?

I want to point out, that nationalism is not rational or reasonable. It is by definition, irrational. It is emotion-based, created usually by the rulers to keep solidarity and unity of a nation. Its goal is to unite people for a cause, and it is a motivator. Just like religiosity.

This is very important when understanding human history.

It is plausible and very likely, that Ataturk understood this, so instead of implementing a sense of superiority in Turks over other nationalities, Ataturk promoted inclusiveness and unity. He told people to forget their ethnic groups/religious-identities and previous grievances/hatreds or other revenge-feelings over World War I.

He wanted a clean slate for the Turkish people. He wanted different ethnic and religious groups to unite without bickering with each other. I believe the United States did a great job of this later in the 20th century, but Turkey has always had war and so this was not as easy.

Ottoman Nationalist Armenian Genocide Plans

Ottoman nationalism was an attempt by certain members of the Committee of Union and Progress (Young Turks) to unite the empires’ peoples to fight off the enemies of the empire. The problem was there were too many ethnic and religious groups within the Ottoman Empire that really did not care much about the Ottomans. Why should they care for Ottoman unity? Why would non-Muslims support Ottoman Islamic rule? Sometimes Ottoman Nationalism is confused with Turkish Nationalism and Armenian authors love to reference any hint at Ottoman Nationalism as a motivation or source for "exterminating Armenians."

The issue here is that while the Ottoman Empire is the sick man of Europe trying to save itself from extinction by making attempts at Ottoman-unifying feelings of solidarity, as well as getting the Caliph to issue fatwas against the British in hopes that Arabs will stop rebelling against the Ottomans and unite with Ottoman armies, it was not really interested in suppressing or oppressing anyone.

The Ottomans faced dire extinction. They needed all the help they can get. They had for a time recruited many Christians into the army as conscripts to help fight against the European powers (until they started deserting and taking weapons/ammunition with them). Thus the Ottomans learned a hard lesson in loyalty, and decided that Christians can't always be trusted with weapons.

Everyone acted rationally in that case. The Armenians rebelled, because they were sick of Ottoman rule. They collected weapons, they stole them from the Ottomans, they sabotaged their war effort. It made total sense if you desired to create an Armenian state. They were right to do so.

But the Ottomans were also right to suppress those rebels and not trust the Armenians. They were right to try and keep their empire together (unless you believe empires to be immoral), but they were right in the sense of preserving their empire and their own survival.

CUP Ottoman leadership

The CUP wanted to unite the empire, but they did not intend to rid the Ottoman Empire of its Islamic Empire status. The CUP could not possibly rid the empire of its conservative thinkers or religious people. Instead of replacing Ottoman Islamic rule, Islamic systems and schools, they simply added new European systems alongside the old, because they knew how easily Sultans and Ottoman governments have been overthrown when radical reformers took power.

Sometimes Armenian-Genocide proponents claim that Turkish nationalism, which they claim "Pan-Turkism" or "Turanism" is what fueled and motivated genocide against Armenians. Armenian author Vahakn Dadrian who strongly supports the Armenian Genocide thesis, writes in his book that Talaat Pasha (Minister of Interior) and the CUP met secretly and planned an anti-Foreigner nationalist genocide plan. Dadrian sources British Vice Consul Arthur B. Geary , since he was one of the few diplomats to receive Talaat Pasha's secret speech. However, the source does not mention plans to kill, but merely mentions the difficult "task of Ottomanizing the empire" because without Ottomanization the leaders knew they would soon be victims of revolts such as the problems they witnessed in the Balkans. [1]

The Ottomans saw how quickly nationalistic feelings spread in the Balkans. The Armenians saw how successful nationalistic rebellion was against the weak Ottoman Empire that is right in the midst of also fighting a World War. Can you imagine a better chance to carve out your own nation?

This isn't to say that Armenians were wrong to do so. No, if they felt oppressed, then they had every right to rebel. But if the Ottomans felt their power threatened then from their perspective they did what was necessary to preserve their empire, and that is to stop rebellions. This was not abnormal or irrational for any empire to do.

Ridding the empire of Christians would have only fueled the Christian Nationalism that was growing in the empire and increase European Powers using imperialism and nationalism to destroy the empire. One has to only read the Tehcir Law (Relocation and Immigration Laws) that relocated Armenians in Eastern Anatolia to understand the intent of the Ottoman government. The Tehcir Law was the most primitive solution of any government to silence future revolutions as a quick and hasty response to Armenian rebellions such as in Van during war-time.

Ziya Gokalp, Turanism

Mr. Dadrian and other pro-Armenian-Genocide authors usually claim that Ziya Gokalp , who had also been a member of the CUP Young Turk government, was responsible for Turanism and thus helped the CUP "set the philosophical base for the eradication of the Armenians" according to Haigazn Kazarian , an Armenian scholar.

The reality is Ziya Gokalp only talked about Turanism in his poem Turan and book The Principles of Turkism , in a very non-political manner. His philosophy according to all interpreters of his work is completely based on Turkish culture and language rather than political unity. Ziya Gokalp talks about Turkish nationalism as a "sharing of education and culture."

Gökalp's theory of nationalism was radically different from other nationalisms at the time. He believed that one became part of the 'Turkish Nation' "through education in its values, not through 'blood' or 'spirit'." [2] His theory was not racialist. In effect, one could say, everyone who wanted to be part of the Turkish nation could do so. It required willpower and education, not having ancestors with the right skin color.

Ziya Gokalp may have influenced the growth of Turkish nationalism in the 1920s but back in 1909 the political atmosphere did not allow a disassociation with Islamic unity. Ziya Gokalp was a humanitarian and his thoughts were mostly poetic and cultural in nature, he did not expect or request anyone to fulfill pan-Turkism. [3]

Ziya Gokalp’s writings may have influenced certain Ottoman readers, but the exposure was very limited and would have certainly been rejected by Ottoman leaders because of the urgent problems all over the empire that took precedent.

History of Turkish Nationalism

Turkish Nationalism started mainly in the 1920s, beginning with the Turkish War of Independence. The Greek Republic’s invasion in the Western Turkey supported by the British, and the Armenian Republic’s invasion of Eastern Turkey supported by the Russians, the Armenian Legion’s invasion of Southern Turkey supported by the French until the extermination of Turkish civilian population was noticed by the French and the legion disbanded, had all contributed to forced migration of Turks to the center of Anatolia and the development of Turkish Nationalism based on self-defense and fear of extermination.

The destruction of Turks was the worst human tragedy of World War I. A U.S. investigation by Arthur E. Sutherland and Captain Emory H. Niles was recently declassified by the United States National Archives . The report tells a gruesome story that was detailed by Mr. Sutherland and Captain Niles in Eastern Turkish provinces right after World War I in August 1919 .

In the report, the Muslim population of Bitlis decreased by 26,000, Van province by 38,000, and in Beyazit by 2,540. The houses of Muslims by 1919, 6,500 houses in Bitlis, 3,397 in Van, and 360 in Beyazit had been burned to the ground. In Van province over 3,000 Turkish/Kurdish villages were destroyed compared to only 99 Armenian villages. Many Armenian population and houses were also destroyed but the destruction of Muslim lives and property was at a much higher percentage. [4]

Nationalism of Greeks, Armenians, and other Balkan nations were forged out of racial beliefs of ethnic superiority, the illusionary belief that Christians are better rulers than Muslims, and the nationalistic goal of territorial claims. In contrast, Turkish nationalism was formed out of a necessity to survive the attacks and destruction of other nationalists.

This doesn't make nationalism rational in anyway, but nationalism born out of nation-building versus nationalism born out of self-defense, are distinctly different. Though sometimes it's hard to tell the difference.

Turkish War of Independence

The destruction had forced hundreds of thousands of Turkish speakers to migrate to central Turkey and the many other ethnic groups along with them that were thought of as inferior by Greek and Armenian nationalists. This devastation fueled Turkish nationalism and the people's trust of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk grew as the enemy drew closer to central Turkish province of Ankara.

The Turkish Grand National Assembly , which was newly formed in opposition to the Ottoman government in Istanbul that was trying to appease the Allied Powers, had at first tried to restrict the authority of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. However, as the Greek army had marched from the Western coastal city of Izmir to the province of Ankara where citizens of Ankara city could hear the guns and artillery of the Greek army, the Assembly gave all their authority to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk organized his armies and slowly drove the Greek invasion back to Izmir. After many battles they finally drove the Greek army to evacuate back to Greece. The Greeks had burned agriculture, livestock, food stockpiles, factories, shops, buildings, and even burned down forests in their deliberate policy to weaken the new Turkish Republic as they retreated back to Greece. They slaughtered thousands of Turkish civilians believing that when they come back there would be less recruits for the Turkish army. When the Turks had arrived, Izmir city was burning to the ground. Although few in number, some Greek nationalists blame Turks for the fire in Izmir, claiming that they were trying to burn the Greeks of Izmir. The idea that Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who liberated his own industrious port city of Izmir, would for some reason burn his own city, is beyond absurd and such beliefs are irrational nationalistic idealism in which the nationalist is for some reason never at fault. [5]

The Armenian legion was formed to invade Cilicia (Southern Turkey) with the help of French supplies and officers. However, by December 1921, the Turkish nationalists were able to slowly fend off the Armenian legion and liberate their cities. The French noticing the destruction caused by the Armenian legion on civilian populations decided their interests lay in Syria and not in Cilicia so they made a deal with the Turkish Grant National Assembly in Ankara and withdrew from Cilicia. [6]

The invasions in the East by the Armenian Republic, which had now ceased to receive aid from Russia due to the Bolshevik Revolution, had caused much destruction of Turks and Kurds in Eastern Turkey. The conflict had created an ethnic communal warfare where both sides were disorganized guerrilla bands seeking revenge for past massacres and wars. Ethnic hatred grew as proper government or civil order disappeared, replaced by massacres, ethnic cleansing, and warfare. The local Armenians banded together with Armenian nationalism that had been born in the 1870s, fueled by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaks) and the Hunchaks who opposed Islamic rule of Christian Armenians. The Armenians remembered the Ottoman Relocation Laws (today Armenians claim it was an Armenian Genocide), and the Turks and Kurds remembered the Armenian betrayal and enforcement of Russia, both of which brought equal death and destruction to the people of Eastern Anatolia. Nevertheless, with the help of Kazim Karabekir Pasha, the Turkish nationalists had finally arrived to easily drive away the disorganized and unaided Armenians. [7]

Definition of Turkish Nationalism

The problem of Turkish nationalism was that the people of the Turkish nation were of a wide variety of ethnic groups, genes, and races. As such, Turkish nationalism was inclusively defined as either anyone who speaks Turkish or who calls him or herself "a Turk."

Hence, the Turkish nationality has been created from mainly Greek, Armenian, Circassian, Tatar, Laz, Abhazian, Azerbaijanian, Georgian, Assyrian, Jewish, Albanian, Macedonian, Bulgarian Muslim, Sephardic Jew, and Turkish ethnicities and religions. In essence, it is a melting pot of all Anatolian people ranging from the gene pools of Asia and the Balkans. [8]

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's speeches clarified that everyone knows the many different ethnicities and religions their ancestors are from, but to create unity and success, people need to put aside their differences and past history as it only fuels hatred and revenge. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk said that no matter what ethnicity or religion as long as you want to be a Turk you are a Turk.

The common traits of the Turkish nation are simply language, culture, tradition, common citizenship and activity, very similar to the make-up of the United States. Unlike European, Arabic, and Balkan nations, there are no exclusive ideas involved in defining a Turkish national. Not having a certain common trait does not exclude one from calling oneself a Turk.

The religious make-up of the majority of Turkey being predominantly Islamic is not a mark that excludes non-Muslims from being Turkish. The religious make-up is an effect of forced migration of Muslims from Europe and the Caucuses into Turkey, and the ethnic cleansing of Jews by Christian nationalists including Jewish migration to Israel, and the internal political problems of Turkey in comparison to more successful and richer European nations in which Christians are attracted and migrate to. Regardless, there are still a considerable number of Christians, Jews, and other religious people in Turkey today. Many Armenians and Greeks in Izmir and Istanbul have remained in those cities for centuries and no one has tried to displace them.


The Promise (2017)

The main characters and their storyline is fiction. This includes the love triangle between Ana (Charlotte Le Bon), a Paris-raised Armenian her American journalist boyfriend Chris Myers (Christian Bale) and the Armenian medical student, Mikael Boghosian (Oscar Isaac), who falls in love with her. The love story was created by screenwriters Terry George and Robin Swicord. However, much like Doctor Zhivago, the major political events going on around these characters are largely factual. This includes the rounding up of Christian Armenians, which started the Armenian Genocide in April 1915. Whole villages were subsequently wiped out, as Mikael learns was the fate of his own village in the movie.

What was the Armenian Genocide?

Does Turkey still deny that the Armenian Genocide took place?

Yes. During our investigation into The Promise true story, we learned that the Turkish government refuses to acknowledge it as a genocide, saying that it was simply a religious conflict between Christians and Muslims (the latter of whom were the overwhelming majority). Most Turks do not believe that the extermination of 1.5 million Armenians by the Turkish military was a genocide. In fact, many don't acknowledge it at all, and others will only go as far as to call it a massacre. One reason it is not talked about in Turkey is because it is illegal to discuss the Armenian Genocide. With roughly 2 million Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire prior to the killings, it's hard to deny that the extermination of 1.5 million of them was not a systematic attempt to wipe out an entire people. -History.com

How are there over 120,000 IMDB ratings for a movie not yet released?

The fraudulent IMDB ratings are part of a propaganda campaign by the Turkish government and Turkish people to discredit The Promise before its release, mainly in an effort to deter people from seeing it. Armenians have countered by giving the movie high IMDB ratings in order to encourage people to see it and in turn bring awareness to this largely unacknowledged blight on Turkey's past.

At the time of this article (two days prior to the movie's release), there are 123,112 IMDB ratings for The Promise. That's more than for The Secret Life of Pets, one of the top grossing movies of 2016. Of the total votes, 61,416 are 1-star ratings and 59,966 are 10-star ratings. All of the ratings have so far happened prior to The Promise's release. The movie did screen at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2016, where there were only three showings. However, this opened the door to voting on IMDB, leading to the flood of fake ratings and the battle between Turkish deniers and Armenians.

Why won't IMDB step in and remove the fraudulent ratings?

The Promise's fake IMDB ratings are certainly a problem for IMDB, one that has led some to question the site's credibility for other movies as well. One only has to look back a few months to the assault of negative ratings before the release of A Dog's Purpose, which were sparked by allegations of animal abuse on the movie's set (an allegation that the filmmakers have since been absolved of). That movie found 94% of voters having already given it a 1-star rating a week before its release. -TheWrap.com

So what's the solution for IMDB? One thing they could do would be to step in and wipe The Promise's ratings clean until the movie's release. That would at least prevent early fraudulent ratings and deter Armenian Genocide deniers from using the site as a propaganda tool. IMDB could also block Turks and Armenians from rating the movie altogether, which can easily be done by blocking the IP address ranges of the two countries. Without enough controversy and media attention calling them out, IMDB has instead chose to ignore the problem. One can only wonder how many people will steer clear of the film because they believe the false IMDB rating and in turn remain largely unaware of the Armenian Genocide. At this point, the filmmakers can only hope that public outrage grows enough to lift the rating and subdue the deniers.

Did Turkey try to stop The Promise from being made?

While Turkey has been successful in stopping other movies about the Armenian Genocide from being made, including MGM's plans for Clark Gable to star in a 1930s film adaptation of Franz Werfel's novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, The Promise fortunately found its way to the big screen. This is mainly because it was independently financed by businessman Kirk Kerkorian, the former owner of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who is of Armenian descent. In researching The Promise true story, we learned that Kerkorian passed away in 2015 just as production was beginning on the movie, which cost almost $100 million to make before tax breaks. It is one of the most expensive independently financed movies of all time. -Variety.com

As The Promise waited to close a distribution deal, producer Eric Esrailian grew worried that buyers were being scared away by the movie's subject matter. "I'll just say that there are some studios that have business interests in Turkey, and you can form your own opinion." The Promise did eventually land a distributor in Open Road Films. However, the controversy is likely not over. Director Atom Egoyan, whose 2002 film Ararat featured a Hollywood director attempting to make a movie about the Armenian Genocide, felt the full weight of the denialist lobby. "It's going to be a tough ride," Egoyan says. In his case, Ararat's distributor Miramax and the studio's then-owner, Disney, were targeted, with Miramax receiving so many email complaints that the studio's website crashed. -Variety.com

Why did the Turkish government want to wipe out the Armenians?

Ever since Armenia was absorbed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the 15th Century, the Christian Armenians suffered racial discrimination and poor treatment at the hands of the Muslim Turks, who considered them infidels. They also resented that the Armenians were better educated and more prosperous in commerce and trade. When the rebel group known as the Young Turks overthrew the Sultan in 1908, the Armenians finally thought their situation was going to improve. However, despite the Young Turks more modern idea of government and promises of racial justice, they treated the Armenians far worse. They saw Christian Armenians as a threat to their newly established order.

When Turkey entered World War I with Germany in 1914, Armenia, fed up with centuries of Turkish mistreatment, turned on them and aligned themselves with their Christian neighbor, Russia. This prompted Turkey to declare holy war on all Christians who weren't allied with them, including Armenia. The Turkish government wanted Armenians removed from all war zones, an effort that foreshadowed the genocide that would soon follow. -ThePromisetoAct.org

Did the Armenian Genocide begin with the deportation and killing of intellectuals?

Yes. According to most Armenians, the genocide started when several hundred Armenian intellectuals and community leaders were rounded up and sent on a death march through the desert on April 24, 1915. They were given no water or food, which resulted in hundreds dying. In reality, deportations of Armenians really began two weeks earlier on April 8 in Zeytun, but the 24th is the date most often cited.

Are the atrocities committed against the Armenians in the film exaggerated?

No. The Promise true story reveals that during the seven years from 1915 to 1922, Christian Armenians suffered horrifically at the hands of Muslim Turks. Turkish killing squads were formed to slaughter Armenians, including burning them alive, throwing them off cliffs, drowning them, crucifying them, and ending their lives in other unthinkable ways. Many women were raped and mothers watched their infants dashed off rocks before their eyes. Some Armenians were used for medical experimentation, including being administered hazardous drugs or outright poisoned. The Turkish military division in charge of carrying out the atrocities was referred to as The Special Organization.

Approximately 25 concentration camps were set up, including labor camps like the one Mikael (Oscar Isaac) is imprisoned in until he escapes in the movie. Others who weren't killed or sent to camps were deported from the region altogether. However, many never made it out, as they were either massacred on the way or succumbed to starvation and exhaustion. It was all part of Turkey's plan to disguise extermination as deportation.

Did Turkey's Minister of Interior, Talaat Pasha, admit to the genocide?

Yes. Talaat Pasha, one of the leaders of the Young Turks, is considered to be the main architect behind the Armenian Genocide. U.S. Ambassador Henry Morgenthau Sr. said that Talaat Pasha and other Turkish officials made no attempt to conceal the real purpose of the deportations. He includes several conversations he had with Talaat Pasha in his book Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. In the book, Pasha is forthright with his intention for the deportations to be a guise for extermination. Abdulahad Nuri, an official under Pasha in charge of the deportations, would also later testify that Pasha told him that the goal of the deportations was "extermination."

Did Talaat Pasha really demand a list of the dead Armenians who had American life insurance policies?

Did Armenian refugees really escape down a mountainside to the coast like in the movie?

Yes. While exploring The Promise true story, we learned that this scenario is indeed based in historical fact. In the movie, Mikael (Oscar Isaac) and Ana (Charlotte Le Bon) link up with a large group of refugees who are forced to hold off the Turks as they escape down the side of a mountain to the coast. The French Navy has come to their aide with Chris (Christian Bale) in tow. In real life, some 4,000 Armenian civilians successfully fought off Ottoman Turkish forces for 53 days in 1915 after retreating to the highest town on Musa Dagh, a mountain in the Hatay province of Turkey near the Mediterranean Coast. Just as their ammo and food was almost gone, they escaped down the backside of the mountain and were rescued by the French Navy. The event inspired Franz Werfel to pen his novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh.

Is it true that all the profits from the movie's release are being donated to human rights organizations?

Yes. According to The Hollywood Reporter, all of the profits from The Promise's theatrical run are going to be donated to nonprofit organizations, including the Elton John AIDS Foundation and other humanitarian and human rights organizations.

Dig deeper into The Promise movie true story by watching the videos below, including modern-day Turks denying the Armenian Genocide on camera. Then watch The Promise movie trailer.


What Caused the Rise – and Fall – of the Ottoman Empire?

The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest superpowers and longest-lived dynasties in world history. At its height, the Islamic empire extended far beyond modern-day Turkey — from Egypt and Northern Africa through the Middle East, Greece, the Balkans (Bulgaria, Romania, etc.), and right up to the gates of Vienna, Austria.

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire was not only a dominant military force, but a diverse and multicultural society. The glory wouldn't last, however, and after centuries of political crises, the Ottoman Empire was finally dismantled after World War I.

So, what led to its downfall? First, let's go back to its beginnings.

It All Started with Osman

Osman Gazi is known as the father of the Ottoman dynasty, the first in a long line of military leaders and sultans who came to rule the Ottoman Empire for six centuries. In fact, the word Ottoman in English derives from the Italian pronunciation of Osman's name.

Osman was born in 1258 in the Anatolian town of Söğüt (in modern-day Turkey). He led one of many small Islamic principalities in the region at the time, but Osman wasn't satisfied with a provincial kingdom. He raised an army of fierce frontier warriors known as Ghazis and marched against Byzantine strongholds in Asia Minor.

According to Ottoman lore, Osman had a dream in which all the known world was unified under Ottoman rule, symbolized by the canopy of a massive tree rising from his body and covering the world. This vision, first published 150 years after Osman's death, provided divine authority for the Ottoman conquests to come, explained historian Caroline Finkel in "Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire."

The Gunpowder Empire

In 1453, Sultan Mehmed II, aka Mehmed the Conqueror, laid siege to the greatly weakened Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Although its population had dwindled, the fabled city still had its impenetrable walls. But the Ottomans came prepared with a new type of weaponry: cannons.

"The Ottomans were some of the first to employ artillery on a mass scale in the 15th century," says Chris Gratien, a history professor at the University of Virginia and co-creator of the Ottoman History Podcast. Mehmed bombarded the fortified city walls for weeks before his army broke through, making Constantinople (later Istanbul) the new Ottoman capital, which it would remain for over four centuries.

By unseating the Byzantine Empire, Sultan Mehmed could claim his place in the Roman imperial tradition. It's at this moment, historians believe, that the Ottoman Empire was born.

A Multicultural Caliphate

The Ottomans and most of their functionaries were Muslim, but the sultans and the ruling elite were strategic and pragmatic about the role of religion in their ever-expanding empire.

For conquests of predominantly Muslim regions like Egypt, the Ottomans established themselves as the true caliphate without completely erasing their Muslim subjects' existing political structure. Non-Muslim communities throughout the Mediterranean governed much of their own affairs under the Ottomans, as Christians and Jews were considered "protected people" in the Islamic political tradition.

Gratien says that the Ottomans were able to successfully govern and maintain such an extensive land empire not only through military might but "a combination of cooption and compromise."

The Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire reached its territorial and political apex under the 46-year rule of Suleiman I, better known as Suleiman the Magnificent, who was intent on making his Mediterranean kingdom a European superpower.

Militarily, this was the "period of peak Ottoman dominance," says Gratien. Suleiman commanded an elite professional fighting force known as the Janissaries. The fighters were taken by force from Christian families as youth, educated and trained as soldiers and made to convert to Islam. Fearless in battle, the Janissaries were also accompanied by some of the world's first military bands.

Suleiman's reign also coincided with a period of great wealth for the Ottoman Empire, which controlled some of the most productive agricultural land (Egypt) and most trafficked trade routes in Europe and the Mediterranean.

But Gratien says that the Age of Suleiman was about more than just power and money it was also about justice. In Turkish, Suleiman's nickname was Kanuni — "the lawgiver" — and he sought to project the image of a just ruler in the Islamic tradition. In larger towns across the empire, citizens could take their disputes to local Islamic courts, the records of which are still around today. Not just Muslims, but Christians and Jews. And not just men, but women.

"These were places where women could go claim their rights in cases of inheritance or divorce, for example," says Gratien.

Roxelana and the 'Sultanate of Women'

A fascinating and somewhat overlooked figure in Ottoman history is Roxelana, the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent. As historian Leslie Peirce showed in his book "Empress of the East: How a European Slave Girl Became Queen of the Ottoman Empire," Roxelana, known as Hürrem Sultan in Turkish, ushered in a new age of female political power in the palace, sometimes known as the "Sultanate of Women."

Roxelana was a non-Muslim kidnapped by slavers at 13 and eventually sold into the sultan's harem. According to Ottoman royal tradition, the sultan would stop sleeping with a concubine once she bore him a male heir. But Suleiman stuck with Roxelana, who bore him a total of six children and became one of his closest confidantes and political aides — and perhaps most shockingly, his wife.

Thanks to Roxelana's example, the imperial harem took on a new role as an influential political body, and generations of Ottoman women ruled alongside their sultan husbands and sons.

Military Decline and Internal Reforms

In 1683, the Ottomans tried for a second time to conquer Vienna but were repulsed by an unlikely alliance of the Hapsburg Dynasty, the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Not only did the Ottomans fail to capture Vienna, but they ended up losing Hungary and other territory in the ensuing war.

The once unbeatable Ottoman fighters suffered loss after loss throughout the 18th and 19th centuries as more Ottoman territories declared independence or were snatched up by neighboring powers like Russia.

But Gratien says that while the Ottoman Empire shrunk in size, it also centralized its government and become more involved in the lives of its citizens. It raised more taxes and opened public schools and hospitals. The economy and population density grew rapidly in the 19th century even as the military suffered painful losses. The Ottoman Empire also became the destination for millions of Muslim immigrants and refugees from former Ottoman lands and neighboring regions.

"Large-scale immigration is associated with places like the United States in the 19th century, but people don't think of the Ottoman Empire as something that was also growing and dynamic during that time," says Gratien.

The Rise of the 'Young Turks'

In the late 19th century, the Ottoman Empire experimented with a constitutional monarchy and an elected parliament, but that came to end in 1878 when Sultan Abdülhamid II dissolved the democratic institutions and ushered in 30 years of autocratic rule.

Abdülhamid's hardline approach sowed the seeds of revolution, and the leading Ottoman opposition group was the Committee of Union and Progress party (CUP), also known as the "Young Turks." Though its leaders were Turkish nationalists, the CUP formed a coalition of ethnoreligious groups, including Armenians, Jews, Arabs, Greeks and Albanians.

The Young Turks wanted to restore the constitution, limit the monarchy and reestablish the greatness of the empire. Their victory in the 1908 revolution was widely celebrated as a win for liberty, equality, and Ottoman brotherhood. But the revolution quickly soured as factions split and more ardent nationalists consolidated what became increasingly authoritarian rule.

Coinciding with this internal turmoil was the First Balkan War in 1912, in which the Ottomans lost their remaining European territory in Albania and Macedonia. And as World War I approached, the militarily weakened Ottomans threw their fate in with Germany, who they hoped would protect them from their bitter enemy Russia.

The Armenian Genocide — The Empire's Final Shameful Chapter

With the ultranationalist wing of the Young Turks in charge, the Ottoman government initiated a plan to deport and resettle millions of ethnic Greeks and Armenians, groups whose loyalty to the crumbling empire was in question.

Under the cover of "security concerns," the Ottoman government ordered the arrest of notable Armenian politicians and intellectuals on April 24, 1915, a day known as Red Sunday. What followed was the forced deportation of more than a million Armenian citizens, including death marches across the desert to Syria and alleged massacres by soldiers, irregulars, and other armed groups in the region. In all, an estimated 1.5 million Armenians (out of 2 million in the Ottoman Empire) were killed between 1915 and 1923, according to the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.

Most scholars and historians agree that what happened to the Ottoman Armenians constitutes ethnic cleansing and genocide, but Turkey and a number of its allies still refuse to call it by that name.

Defeat in World War I was the final death blow to the Ottoman Empire, but the sultanate wasn't officially dissolved until 1922, when the Turkish nationalist resistance leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk rose to power and established a secular republic. Under his decades-long, one-party rule, Atatürk tried to erase Ottoman institutions and cultural symbols, brought in Western legal codes and laid the foundation for modern Turkey.

You can thank the Ottoman Empire for popularizing both coffee and coffeehouses way back in the 16th century.


Pan-Turanism, Not Islam, Motivated the Armenian Genocide

A recently published book Remembering for the Future: Armenia, Auschwitz, and Beyond, edited by Michael Berenbaum, Richard Libowitz, and Marcia Sachs Littell, is a collection of scholarly papers delivered at a conference held at the American Jewish University in Los Angeles, March 8-11, 2014.

In his paper, “The Armenian Genocide as Jihad,” Prof. Richard Rubenstein attributes the Armenian mass killings to Islamic fanaticism against Christians. This is an often misunderstood topic even by Armenians who proudly proclaim that they were the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion in 301 A.D. There is a whole folklore based on the misconception that Armenians were martyred because of their faith and refusal to convert to Islam. Given the current anti-Islamic fervor in the United States and elsewhere, some people are misled by these false claims.

A theatrical poster for ‘Ravished Armenia’

Prof. Rubenstein starts his paper on the wrong footing when he describes a gruesome scene from “Ravished Armenia,” a 1919 Hollywood silent film which showed several naked Armenian women nailed to wooden crosses. Believing that “the Turks” intended to send a particular anti-Armenian and anti-Christian message with such horrifying images, Prof. Rubenstein mistakenly claims that the movie “could not have been filmed without the involvement and consent of Turkish authorities.”

Prof. Rubenstein bases his assumptions of the religious motive behind the Armenian Genocide on the fact that “the Ottoman Empire was governed as a theocratic state at the apex of which stood the Sultan, both the supreme head of state and, for Sunni Muslims, the Caliph and, as such, the successor to the Prophet and supreme protector of Islam.”

The Professor insists on stipulating a religious causal factor for the Armenian Genocide, even after quoting from the eminent scholar Dr. Vahakn Dadrian, who contradicts him. According to Dadrian, the members of the Committee of Union and Progress or Ittihad who gained power in 1908 and masterminded the Armenian Genocide, were not “followers of the tenets of Islam…. While the Ittihad continued to run the State largely as a theocracy, its leaders were personally atheists and agnostics.” It is difficult to believe that a devout Muslim would murder a single human being, let alone millions!

Dr. Rubenstein emphasizes the central role of Islam in the Turkish mass killings of Armenians, even though he acknowledges that “[Ronald] Suny and other scholars have argued that the predominant motive for the murderous homogenization project was nationalism and there is no doubt that radical nationalism played a part.” Rubenstein dismisses the issue of Pan-Turkish nationalism, arguing that “the most important motivation for the monumental ‘ethnic cleansing’ projects was religious and specifically a consequence of the unchanging nature of certain aspects of Islam.”

To demonstrate that religion was a major determinant in the Turkish leaders’ designs, Prof. Rubenstein states: “on November 2, 1914, the Ottoman Empire declared war on the Entente powers, Britain, France, Russia, and their allies. On November 13, the Ottoman Sultan, in his capacity as Caliph, issued an appeal for jihad. The next day, Mustafa Hayri Bey, the Sheikh-ul-Islam, and as such the chief Sunni religious authority in the Ottoman world, issued a formal (and inflammatory) declaration of jihad ‘against infidels and enemies of Islam.’ Jihad pamphlets in Arabic were also distributed in mosques throughout the Muslim world that offered a detailed plan of operations for the assassination and extermination of all ‘unbelievers’ except those of German nationality, the Empire’s wartime ally. Killing squads and their leaders were ‘motivated by both the ideology of jihad and Pan-Turkism influenced by European nationalism.’ While the practical influence of the jihad on the masses was limited, ‘it later facilitated the government’s program of genocide against the Armenians.’”

Prof. Rubenstein misses the point that religious fervor, rather than being the cause of the Armenian Genocide, was exploited to inflame the passions of the fanatical Turkish mobs in order to provoke them against the Armenians.

Instead of religion, the primary motivation for the destruction of Armenians was their removal as an impediment to Turkification and an obstacle to the Turkish leaders’ grand scheme of establishing a Pan-Turanist empire reaching Central Asia. Even though they were Muslims, a large number of Kurds were also killed, simply because they were not Turks!

Christian Armenians had no conflict with devout Muslims and their faith. In fact, large numbers of survivors of the Armenian Genocide were sheltered by Muslims in, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria. Armenians remember well The Sharif of Mecca, Al-Husayn ibn Ali, who issued an edict in 1917 ordering Muslims to defend Armenian survivors of the Genocide, as they would defend their own families.

The Young Turks’s plan to eliminate Armenians from Ottoman Turkey was motivated by Pan-Turkish fanatical nationalism rather than Pan-Islamic fervor!


4 The Malta Investigation

In 1919, the Ottoman government asked its Spanish, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish counterparts to send impartial investigators into the Anatolian events of World War I. The request was in vain because of British pressure. 34

Furthermore, the occupying British forces took 144 Ottoman officials to Malta to try them in a tribunal for presumed war crimes and crimes against Armenians. The author misrepresents the case of those 144 Ottoman officials interned in Malta from 1919 to 1921. They were released after more than two years of unsuccessful investigation by a British prosecutor and his staff. The occupying powers had not found enough evidence in the British, US, and Armenian archives, or in the Ottoman documentation seized by the British army. The statement by the author that the archives had been destroyed does not reflect the truth. It is known that at that time the British government relied on an Armenian researcher, Haig Khazarian, in its hunt for incriminating evidence against Ottoman officials taken to Malta. The British also requested the US government’s help for this purpose, but received the response that there was not enough evidence. If even the slightest evidence existed in the hands of the British authorities – enough to incriminate the prisoners in Malta – the trials would surely have taken place of the Ottoman citizens who were sent to Malta to face trial. 35

Malta’s prosecutor refused to use the material of the courts martial of 1919–1920. Indeed, the trial of the ministers in 1919 was legally null and void, since it took place in the form of a court martial. According to the Ottoman Constitution, the ministers could be tried only by the High Court for crimes committed in the exercise of their responsibilities. As early as 1919, the right to appeal the sentences was denied. The courts martial of 1919–1920 did not allow cross-examination, the right to which exists even at Guantanamo. In April 1920, Damat Ferit Pasha even banned the defend ants from hiring a lawyer. After the final fall of Damat Ferit, the rights to appeal and hire a lawyer were restored. All the surviving convicts of April–October 1920 appealed their convictions, and they were acquitted of all or most of the charges. These decisions took place when Istanbul was still occupied by the Entente. 36

Malta’s prosecutor did not accept the allegations against the Ottoman Special Organization (SO) unit. Actually, the Special Organization took no part in the forced Armenian displacements and massacres, and no observer of World War I accused that unit of crimes against Armenians. Many years after World War I, Mr Dadrian, followed by Mr Akçam, seriously distorted their material and invented references to the SO which actually do not exist in the records. For instance, they inverted purely and simply the sense of the Memoirs of Arif Cemil Denker, an officer of SO during World War I, seriously distorted the Memoirs and the statements and another officer, Eşref Kuşçubaşı, and falsely alleged that the courts martial of 1919–1920 found the Ottoman SO guilty of Armenian deportation and massacres. Mr Dadrian and Mr Akçam also ignored the relevant Ottoman military documents. 37

5 The Eastern Front

Turkey continued the same internationally wrongful acts, even expanding the massacres beyond its own borders into the Caucasus and the territories of the independent Republic of Armenia .

We assume that the author wants to refer to the 1920 Turco-Armenian war. Much has been written about that tragic period. One of the correct evaluations of that period was made by the then Prime Minister of Armenia, Hovannes Kachaznuni. He wrote:

Despite these hypotheses there remains an irrefutable fact. That we had not done all that was necessary for us to have done to evade war. We ought to have used peaceful language with the Turks whether we succeeded or not, and we did not do it. … With the carelessness of inexperienced and ignorant men we did not know what forces Turkey had mustered on our frontiers. When the skirmishes had started the Turks proposed that we meet and confer. We did not do so and defied them. 38

We would strongly recommend that those who are interested in the realities of that time to consult this book. This may help them refresh their memories. Furthermore, we should add that the Russian, US, British, and Turkish archives are full of documents which prove the atrocities committed by the Armenian forces in eastern Anatolia during that period, a fact which some leaders of the Armenians are proud of and do not deny. 39

After the end of the Turco-Armenian War, the Kars Treaty was signed on 13 October 1921 by the delegates of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey. The intervention of the then Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia, Mr Muravian, who attended the Kars Peace Treaty Conference on 22 September 1921, is also worth mentioning to reflect the Armenian position at that point. He said:

We have not come here with antagonistic feelings and we have no intentions of presenting here the controversial issues we have inherited from the former nationalist governments. We are only admirers of the brave struggle which the preserving people of Turkey engaged in. We carry a sincere wish, and we are absolutely convinced that a nation which defends its country will be victorious and the enemy will be defeated. 40

6 Is The War of Independence a Myth Invented By Kemalists?

The author alleges that ‘[t]he “War of Independence” is a myth invented by Kemalists that it was not against the occupying Allies, but rather a campaign to rid Turkey of remaining “non-Turkish elements”’. Even Taner Akçam does not assume such an absurd 41 stance. The author should ask himself why France, the UK, Italy, Greece, and other powers signed the Treaty of Lausanne which ended World War I and the War of Independence if this war was a myth.

The Kemalist movement was by no means hostile to the non-Muslims and was supported, not only by most of the Turkish Jews, 42 but also by a portion of Istanbul’s Armenians, like the Karabetian Society and the Deputy Director General of the Ottoman Bank (promoted Director General during World War I), Berç Keresteciyan (1870–1949), future deputy of the Turkish National Assembly from 1935 to 1946. 43

Contrary to the author’s false allegations, the National Liberation Government even tried to keep the Christian population of Cilicia at the end of 1921 – in vain, because of the Armenian nationalist propaganda. 44 Similarly, the exodus of most of the Christians of western Anatolia is chiefly due to the scorched earth policy of the Greek army in 1922. 45 Most of the allegations of ‘massacre’ against the National Liberation Movement were proven to be false. 46


History of Seljuk Turks

The Seljuk Turkish history spanned the period from 1060 to around 1307. The Seljuks were a tribe of Tartars from Central Asia who established a powerful empire in Persia in the 11th century. They captured Baghdad in 1055. The Caliph of Baghdad was so impressed with their strength and skill that he made their leader, Tugrul Bey his deputy and conferred on him the title of "King of East and West". The Seljuks however assumed they were the rightful owners of all land conquered during the time of Prophet Mohammed and were keen to extend their kingdom. So a contingent of around 5000 moved into eastern Anatolia and left their mark there for some time.

The Seljuk Turkish history is significant in that they are regarded as the ancestors of the Western Turks - the modern Turks of today. The Seljuk Turks were the first people to invade Anatolia completely. With the establishment of the Anatolian Seljuk State as part of the Great Seljuk Empire began the Islamic period in Turkey. The Seljuks played a major role in the Middle Ages in defending the Islamic world against the Crusaders, and conquering large parts of the Byzantine Empire. They also did a service to Europe by providing a barrier between them and the raiding Mongols. Finally their importance lay in the fact that they paved the way for the Ottoman Turks.


Can you help identify a pistol believed to be Ottoman Empire (Turkish)? - History

By Jonathan Wilson Wed, 01/23/2008 - 23:52

An interview with Dr. Justin McCarthy who is a demographics expert and professor of history on the subjects of the Ottoman Empire and the Balkans . Since he has studied these events so carefully he is able to walk us through the events during the last decades of the Ottoman Empire that Armenians claim was the Armenian Genocide . However,

Armenian Society & Armenian Genocide Propaganda

Dr. Justin McCarthy easily tells us about the research and easily shows that the Armenian Genocide is nothing more than a propaganda story that is rooted from the difference of religions between Armenians and Muslims, and that these people continue to talk about these events and label them as the "Armenian Genocide" in order to pressure Turkey to give Armenians reparations which they believe Turkey will because they do not know the history of the issue ( Since they truly believe in the genocide, and are socially trained by Armenian society to think so ).

The Interviews with Dr. Justin McCarthy

Some Facts Dr. Justin McCarthy mentions

    Dr. Justin McCarthy mentions that the Ottoman statistics say that there were

I find it hard to believe that when the so called Armenian genocide was happening the Turks somehow found the manpower to actually kill 1.5 million armenians. Remember they at the same time these events supposedly were happening lost some 300,000 troops in gallipoli as well as a further 100,000 troops against the arab revolt in Iraq and then a further 100,000 troops against the Russian empire.

Think about it people! The Turks couldnt even keep the country together as the allied powers were taking it apart piece by piece! wake up and realize that this is a fictional genocide but also remember that civilian casualties and especially in a world war for Christ sake do happen and this is the trajedy of all wars!


Ottoman Empire

Economically, socially, and militarily, Turkey was a medieval state, unaffected by the developments in the rest of Europe. Turkish domination over the northern part of Africa (except Tripoli and Egypt) was never well defined or effective, and the eastern border was inconstant, shifting according to frequent wars with Persia. Of the vassal princes, only the khans of Crimea Crimea
, Rus. and Ukr. Krym, peninsula and republic (1991 est. pop. 2,363,000), c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), SE Europe, linked with the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus. The peninsula is bounded on the S and W by the Black Sea.
. Click the link for more information. were generally loyal.

The sultans themselves had sunk into indolence and depravity. Until the ascension (1603) of Ahmad I, the succession to the throne was habitually contested by all the sons of the deceased sultan, and it was the patriotic duty of the victor to kill his rivals in order to restore order. Although this practice was barbarous, when it ceased other problems arose. The eldest male member of the family was recognized as the heir-designate, but to prevent threats to the sultan the imperial prince was denied any involvement in public affairs and was kept in luxurious imprisonment. When the prince finally ascended the throne, he was often alcoholic or lunatic.

Actual rule was usually exercised by the grand viziers, many of whom were able men (notably those of the Köprülü Köprülü
, family of humble Albanian origin, several members of which served as grand vizier (chief executive officer) in the Ottoman Empire. The name is also spelled Kiuprili, Koprili, and Kuprili.
. Click the link for more information. family). The sultans themselves often were the creatures of the Janissaries Janissaries
[Turk.,=recruits], elite corps in the service of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It was composed of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline.
. Click the link for more information. , whose favor was purchased by large gifts at the ascension of a sultan.

One of the most nefarious aspects of the court of Constantinople (known as the Seraglio and the Sublime Porte) was the all-pervading corruption and bribery that had been raised to a system of administration. The pashas and hospodars (governors) who administered the provinces and vassal states purchased their posts at exorbitant prices. They recovered their fortunes by extorting still larger sums from their subjects. The peasantry was thus reduced to abject misery.

A positive feature in Ottoman administration was the religious toleration generally extended to all non-Muslims. This, however, did not prevent occasional massacres and discriminatory fiscal practices. In Constantinople the Greeks and Armenians held a privileged status and were very influential in commerce and politics. The despotic system of government was mitigated only by the observance of Muslim law.

History

Origins

The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. The Ottoman Turks began to absorb the other states, and during the reign (1451󈞽) of Muhammad II they ended all other local Turkish dynasties. The early phase of Ottoman expansion took place under Osman I, Orkhan Orkhan
, 1288?�?, Ottoman sultan (1326�?), son and successor of Osman I as leader of the Ottoman Turks. He defeated Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III and conquered large parts of Asia Minor, including Nicaea and Izmit.
. Click the link for more information. , Murad I Murad I
, 1326?�, Ottoman sultan (1362?�), son and successor of Orkhan to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). Murad widened the Ottoman hold on European territory, conquering Macedonia and making Adrianople his residence.
. Click the link for more information. , and Beyazid I Beyazid I
, 1347�, Ottoman sultan (1389�), son and successor of Murad I. He besieged Byzantine Emperor Manuel II at Constantinople, then overcame the Turkish rulers in E Anatolia and defeated the army of Sigismund of Hungary (see Sigismund, Holy Roman
. Click the link for more information. at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia. Bursa Bursa
, city (1990 pop. 838,323), capital of Bursa prov., NW Turkey. The market center of a rich agricultural region, on the ancient Silk Road S of Constantinople, Bursa was long noted for its silks, but is now a producer of automobiles, other textiles and apparel, and metals.
. Click the link for more information. fell in 1326 and Adrianople (the modern Edirne Edirne
, formerly Adrianople
, city (1990 pop. 102,325), capital of Edirne prov., NW Turkey, in Thrace. It is the commercial center for a farm region where grains, fruits, and tobacco are grown and cattle and sheep are raised. The city was founded (c.A.D.
. Click the link for more information. ) in 1361 each in turn became the capital of the empire. The great Ottoman victories of Kosovo Field Kosovo Field
, Serbian Kosovo Polje [field of the black birds], WSW of Pri&scarontina, Kosovo, site of a battle in which the Turks under Sultan Murad I defeated Serbia and its Bosnian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian, and other allies in 1389.
. Click the link for more information. (1389) and Nikopol Nikopol
, town (1993 pop. 4,897), N Bulgaria, a port on the Danube River bordering Romania. Farming, viticulture, and fishing are the chief occupations. Founded in 629 by Byzantine emperor Heraclius, Nikopol (then Nicopolis) became a flourishing trade and cultural center of the
. Click the link for more information. (1396) placed large parts of the Balkan Peninsula under Ottoman rule and awakened Europe to the Ottoman danger. The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of Timur Timur
or Tamerlane
, c.1336�, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan.
. Click the link for more information. , who defeated and captured Beyazid in 1402. The Ottomans, however, soon rallied.

The Period of Great Expansion

The empire, reunited by Muhammad I Muhammad I
or Mehmet I
(Muhammad the Restorer), 1389?�, Ottoman sultan (1413󈞁), son of Beyazid I. By defeating his brothers he reunited most of his father's empire. He consolidated his authority and thus renewed Ottoman power. His son, Murad II, succeeded him.
. Click the link for more information. , expanded victoriously under Muhammad's successors Murad II Murad II,
1403󈞟, Ottoman sultan (1421󈞟), son and successor of Muhammad I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He was opposed at his accession by a pretender, Mustafa, who rapidly gained control over most of the Ottoman possessions in Europe.
. Click the link for more information. and Muhammad II Muhammad II
or Mehmet II
(Muhammad the Conqueror), 1429󈞽, Ottoman sultan (1451󈞽), son and successor of Murad II. He is considered the true founder of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
. Click the link for more information. . The victory (1444) at Varna Varna
, city (1993 pop. 307,200), E Bulgaria, on the Black Sea. It is a major port and an industrial center. Manufactures include ships and boats, chemicals, electrical equipment, and textiles. Varna is also an international summer resort.
. Click the link for more information. over a crusading army led by Ladislaus III of Poland was followed in 1453 by the capture of Constantinople Constantinople
, former capital of the Byzantine Empire and of the Ottoman Empire, since 1930 officially called İstanbul (for location and description, see İstanbul). It was founded (A.D. 330) at ancient Byzantium (settled in the 7th cent. B.C.
. Click the link for more information. . Within a century the Ottomans had changed from a nomadic horde to the heirs of the most ancient surviving empire of Europe. Their success was due partly to the weakness and disunity of their adversaries, partly to their excellent and far superior military organization. Their army comprised numerous Christians&mdashnot only conscripts, who were organized as the corps of Janissaries Janissaries
[Turk.,=recruits], elite corps in the service of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It was composed of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline.
. Click the link for more information. , but also volunteers. Turkish expansion reached its peak in the 16th cent. under Selim I Selim I
(Selim the Grim) , 1467�, Ottoman sultan (1512󈞀). He ascended the throne of the Ottoman Empire by forcing the abdication of his father, Beyazid II, and by killing his brothers.
. Click the link for more information. and Sulayman I Sulayman I
or Sulayman the Magnificent,
1494�, Ottoman sultan (1520󈞮), son and successor of Selim I. He is known as Sulayman II when considered as a successor of King Solomon of the Bible and Qur'an.
. Click the link for more information. (Sulayman the Magnificent).

The Hungarian defeat (1526) at Mohács Mohács
, town (1991 est. pop. 20,325), S Hungary, on the Danube. It is an important river port and railroad terminus and has metallurgical and timber industries. Mohács is best known for the crushing defeat (Aug.
. Click the link for more information. prepared the way for the capture (1541) of Buda and the absorption of the major part of Hungary Hungary,
Hung. Magyarország, republic (2015 est. pop. 9,784,000), 35,919 sq mi (93,030 sq km), central Europe. Hungary borders on Slovakia in the north, on Ukraine in the northeast, on Romania in the east, on Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia in the south, and on
. Click the link for more information. by the Ottoman Empire Transylvania Transylvania
, Rom. Transilvania or Ardeal, Hung. Erdély, Ger. Siebenbürgen, historic region and province (21,292 sq mi/55,146 sq km), central Romania.
. Click the link for more information. became a tributary principality, as did Walachia Walachia
or Wallachia
, historic region (29,568 sq mi/76,581 sq km), S Romania. The Transylvanian Alps separate it in the NW from Transylvania and the Banat the Danube separates it from Serbia in the west, Bulgaria in the south, and N Dobruja in the east in the
. Click the link for more information. and Moldavia Moldavia
, historic Romanian province (c.14,700 sq mi/38,100 sq km), extending from the Carpathians in Romania east to the Dnieper River in Moldova. Land and Economy

Moldavia borders on Ukraine in the northeast and on Walachia in the south.
. Click the link for more information. . The Asian borders of the empire were pushed deep into Persia and Arabia. Selim I defeated the Mamluks of Egypt Egypt
, Arab. Misr, biblical Mizraim, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2015 est. pop. 93,778,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa and SW Asia.
. Click the link for more information. and Syria Syria
, officially Syrian Arab Republic, republic (2015 est. pop. 18,735,000), 71,467 sq mi (185,100 sq km), W Asia. It borders on Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea in the west, on Turkey in the northwest and north, on Iraq in the east and south, and on Jordan and Israel in the
. Click the link for more information. , took Cairo in 1517, and assumed the succession to the caliphate caliphate
, the rulership of Islam caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
. Click the link for more information. . Algiers Algiers
, Arab. Al-Jaza'Ir, Fr. Alger , city (1998 pop. 1,519,570), capital of Algeria, N Algeria, on the Bay of Algiers of the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the leading ports of North Africa (wine, citrus fruit, iron ore, cork, and cereals are the major
. Click the link for more information. was taken in 1518, and Mediterranean commerce was threatened by corsairs, such as Barbarossa Barbarossa
[Ital.,=red-beard], surname of the Turkish corsair Khayr ad-Din (c.1483�). Barbarossa and his brother Aruj, having seized (1518) Algiers from the Spanish, placed Algeria under Turkish suzerainty. He extended his conquests to the rest of the Barbary States.
. Click the link for more information. , who sailed under Turkish auspices. Most of the Venetian and other Latin possessions in Greece Greece,
Gr. Hellas or Ellas, officially Hellenic Republic, republic (2015 est. pop. 11,218,000), 50,944 sq mi (131,945 sq km), SE Europe. It occupies the southernmost part of the Balkan Peninsula and borders on the Ionian Sea in the west, on the Mediterranean Sea
. Click the link for more information. also fell to the sultans.

During the reign of Sulayman I began (1535) the traditional friendship between France and Turkey, directed against Hapsburg Austria and Spain. Sulayman reorganized the Turkish judicial system, and his reign saw the flowering of Turkish literature, art, and architecture. In practice the prerogatives of the sultan were limited by the spirit of Muslim canonical law (sharia sharia,
the religious law of Islam. As Islam makes no distinction between religion and life, Islamic law covers not only ritual but many aspects of life. The actual codification of canonic law is the result of the concurrent evolution of jurisprudence proper and the so-called
. Click the link for more information. ), and he usually shared his authority with the chief preserver (sheyhülislam) of the sharia and with the grand vizier (chief executive officer).

In the progressive decay that followed Sulayman's death, the clergy (ulema) and the Janissaries gained power and exercised a profound, corrupting influence. The first serious blow by Europe to the empire was the naval defeat of Lepanto (1571 see Lepanto, battle of Lepanto, battle of
, Oct. 7, 1571, naval battle between the Christians and Ottomans fought in the strait between the gulfs of Pátrai and Corinth, off Lepanto (Návpaktos), Greece. The fleet of the Holy League commanded by John of Austria (d.
. Click the link for more information. ), inflicted on the fleet of Selim II Selim II
(Selim the Drunkard), c.1524�, Ottoman sultan (1566󈞶), son and successor of Sulayman I. During his reign the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) was dominated by Sokolli, his grand vizier (chief executive officer).
. Click the link for more information. by the Spanish and Venetians under John of Austria. However, Murad IV Murad IV,
1612?�, Ottoman sultan (1623󈞔), nephew and successor of Mustafa I. He recovered (1638) Baghdad, which Shah Abbas I of Persia had seized. On his victory he sent an order to murder his brother Beyazid.
. Click the link for more information. in the 17th cent. temporarily restored Turkish military prestige by his victory (1638) over Persia. Crete Crete
, Gr. Kríti, island (1991 pop. 539,938), c.3,235 sq mi (8,380 sq km), SE Greece, in the E Mediterranean Sea, c.60 mi (100 km) from the Greek mainland. The largest of the Greek islands, it extends c.
. Click the link for more information. was conquered from Venice, and in 1683 a huge Turkish army under Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Mustafa
or Kara Mustafa
[Turk. kara=black], d. 1683, Turkish grand vizier (chief executive officer) under Sultan Muhammad IV of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He succeeded his brother-in-law, Ahmed Köprülü.
. Click the link for more information. surrounded Vienna. The relief of Vienna by John III John III
(John Sobieski) , 1624󈟌, king of Poland (1674󈟌), champion of Christian Europe against the Ottomans. Born to an ancient noble family, he was appointed (1668) commander of the Polish army.
. Click the link for more information. of Poland and the subsequent campaigns of Charles V Charles V
(Charles Leopold), 1643󈟆, duke of Lorraine nephew of Duke Charles IV. Deprived of the rights of succession to the duchy, he was forced to leave France and entered the service of the Holy Roman emperor.
. Click the link for more information. of Lorraine, Louis of Baden Louis of Baden
, 1655�, margrave of Baden (1677�), military commander in the service of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1689 he was made chief commander of the imperial army in Hungary, where he scored (1691) a resounding victory against the Ottomans at Slankamen.
. Click the link for more information. , and Eugene of Savoy Eugene of Savoy,
1663�, prince of the house of Savoy, general in the service of the Holy Roman Empire. Born in Paris, he was the son of Eugène, comte de Soissons of the line of Savoy-Carignano, and Olympe Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin.
. Click the link for more information. ended in negotiations in 1699 (see Karlowitz, Treaty of Karlowitz, Treaty of
, 1699, peace treaty signed at Sremski Karlovci (Ger. Karlowitz), N Serbia. It was concluded between the Ottoman Empire on the one side and Austria, Poland, and Venice on the other.
. Click the link for more information. ), which cost Turkey Hungary and other territories.

Decline

The breakup of the state gained impetus with the Russo-Turkish Wars Russo-Turkish Wars.
The great eastward expansion of Russia in the 16th and 17th cent., during the decline of the Ottoman Empire, nevertheless left the shores of the Black Sea in the hands of the Ottoman sultans and their vassals, the khans of Crimea.
. Click the link for more information. in the 18th cent. Egypt was only temporarily lost to Napoleon's army, but the Greek War of Independence and its sequels, the Russo-Turkish War of 1828󈞉 (see Adrianople, Treaty of Adrianople, Treaty of,
also called Treaty of Edirne, 1829, peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (see Russo-Turkish Wars). Turkey gave Russia access to the mouths of the Danube and additional territory on the Black Sea, opened the Dardanelles to all commercial
. Click the link for more information. ), and the war with Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali,
1769?�, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
. Click the link for more information. of Egypt resulted in the loss of Greece and Egypt, the protectorate of Russia over Moldavia and Walachia, and the semi-independence of Serbia. Drastic reforms were introduced in the late 18th and early 19th cent. by Selim III Selim III,
1761�, Ottoman sultan (1789�), nephew and successor of Abd al-Hamid I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He suffered severe defeats in the second of the Russo-Turkish Wars with Catherine II, but suffered no major territorial losses when
. Click the link for more information. and Mahmud II Mahmud II,
1784�, Ottoman sultan (1808󈞓), younger son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) upon the deposition of his brother, Mustafa IV, and continued the reforms of his cousin, Selim III.
. Click the link for more information. , but they came too late. By the 19th cent. Turkey was known as the Sick Man of Europe.

Through a series of treaties of capitulation from the 16th to the 18th cent. the Ottoman Empire gradually lost its economic independence. Although Turkey was theoretically among the victors in the Crimean War Crimean War
, 1853󈞤, war between Russia on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia on the other. The causes of the conflict were inherent in the unsolved Eastern Question.
. Click the link for more information. , it emerged from the war economically exhausted. The Congress of Paris (1856) recognized the independence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire, but this event marked the confirmation of the empire's dependency rather than of its rights as a European power.

The rebellion (1875) of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Serbo-Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina, country (2015 est. pop. 3,536,000), 19,741 sq mi (51,129 sq km), on the Balkan peninsula, S Europe. It is bounded by Croatia on the west and north, Serbia on the northeast, and Montenegro on the southeast.
. Click the link for more information. precipitated the Russo-Turkish War of 1877󈞺, in which Turkey was defeated despite its surprisingly vigorous stand. Romania (i.e., Walachia and Moldavia), Serbia, and Montenegro were declared fully independent, and Bosnia and Herzegovina passed under Austrian administration. Bulgaria, made a virtually independent principality, annexed (1885) Eastern Rumelia with impunity.

Sultan Abd al-Majid Abd al-Majid
or Abdülmecit
, 1823󈞩, Ottoman sultan (1839󈞩), son and successor of Mahmud II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire. The rebellion of Muhammad Ali was checked by the intervention (1840󈞕) of England, Russia, and Austria.
. Click the link for more information. , who in 1839 issued a decree containing an important body of civil reforms, was followed (1861) by Abd al-Aziz Abd al-Aziz
or Abdülaziz
, 1830󈞸, Ottoman sultan (1861󈞸), brother and successor of Abd al-Majid. The economic and political reforms enacted under his rule could not outpace the decline of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
. Click the link for more information. , whose reign witnessed the rise of the liberal party. Its leader, Midhat Pasha Midhat Pasha
, 1822󈞿, Turkish politician. As governor of Bulgaria he succeeded within the few years of his tenure (1864󈞱) in raising the country from misery to relative prosperity. Schools, roads, and granaries were built from funds obtained by local taxation.
. Click the link for more information. , succeeded in deposing (1876) Abd al-Aziz. Abd al-Hamid II Abd al-Hamid II,
1842�, Ottoman sultan (1876�). His uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed from the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in 1876 by the Young Turks, a liberal reformist group.
. Click the link for more information. acceded (1876) after the brief reign of Murad V. A liberal constitution was framed by Midhat, and the first Turkish parliament opened in 1877, but the sultan soon dismissed it and began a rule of personal despotism. The Armenian massacres (see Armenia Armenia
, Armenian Hayastan, officially Republic of Armenia, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,917,000), 11,500 sq mi (29,785 sq km), in the S Caucasus. Armenia is bounded by Turkey on the west, Azerbaijan on the east (the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan is on its
. Click the link for more information. ) of the late 19th cent. turned world public opinion against Turkey. Abd al-Hamid was victorious in the Greco-Turkish war of 1897, but Crete, which had been the issue, was ultimately gained by Greece.

Collapse

In 1908 the Young Turk movement, a reformist and strongly nationalist group, with many adherents in the army, forced the restoration of the constitution of 1876, and in 1909 the parliament deposed the sultan and put Muhammad V Muhammad V
or Mehmet V,
1844�, Ottoman sultan (1909󈝾). He succeeded to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when the liberal Young Turk revolution of 1909 deposed his brother, Abd al-Hamid II.
. Click the link for more information. on the throne. In the two successive Balkan Wars Balkan Wars,
1912󈝹, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense.
. Click the link for more information. (1912󈝹), Turkey lost nearly its entire territory in Europe to Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and newly independent Albania. The nationalism of the Young Turks, whose leader Enver Pasha Enver Pasha
, 1881�, Turkish general and political leader. He took a prominent part in the Young Turk revolution of 1908, which reestablished the liberal constitution of 1876. By a coup in 1913, Enver Pasha became the virtual dictator.
. Click the link for more information. gained virtual dictatorial power by a coup in 1913, antagonized the remaining minorities in the empire.

The outbreak of World War I found Turkey lined up with the Central Powers. Although Turkish troops succeeded against the Allies in the Gallipoli campaign Gallipoli campaign,
1915, Allied expedition in World War I for the purpose of gaining control of the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a Black Sea supply route to Russia.
. Click the link for more information. (1915), Arabia rose against Turkish rule, and British forces occupied (1917) Baghdad and Jerusalem. Armenians, accused of aiding the Russians, were massacred and deported from Anatolia beginning in 1915 an Armenian uprising in Van (1915) survived until relieved by Russian forces. In 1918, Turkish resistance collapsed in Asia and Europe. An armistice was concluded in October, and the Ottoman Empire came to an end. The Treaty of Sèvres (see Sèvres, Treaty of Sèvres, Treaty of,
1920, peace treaty concluded after World War I at Sèvres, France, between the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), on the one hand, and the Allies (excluding Russia and the United States) on the other.
. Click the link for more information. ) confirmed its dissolution. With the victory of the Turkish nationalists, who had refused to accept the peace terms and overthrew the sultan in 1922, modern Turkey's history began.

Bibliography

See P. Wittek, The Rise of the Ottoman Empire (1938) W. Miller, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, 1801� (rev. ed. 1936, repr. 1966) L. Cassels, The Struggle for the Ottoman Empire, 1717� (1968) B. Lewis, Emergence of Modern Turkey (2d ed. 1968) H. Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300� (tr. 1973) C. H. Fleischer, Bureaucrat and Intellectual in the Ottoman Empire (1986) S. Pamuk, The Ottoman Empire and European Capitalism 1820� (1987) H. Islamoglu-Inan, ed., The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy (1988) R. Lewis, Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey (1988) A. Wheatcroft, The Ottomans (1993) and The Enemy at the Gate (2009) J. Goodwin, Lords of the Horizons (1999) R. Crowley, Empires of the Sea (2008) E. Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans (2015).


A Short History of Diaspore and its trade names Zultanite and Csarite

Publisher’s note: This short history was originally published by the late Stephen Kotlowski, in the public domain, and is reproduced here verbatim for education and public consumption. If you identify any errors or incorrect attributions, please notify us immediately. All sources are cited.

Here is a short history of the mineral Diaspore and its gemstone trade name(s) Zultanite® / Csarite™ and some of the people involved, also to answer some linge ring questions of what it is and how these trade names came to be along with photos and some noted articles associated with it. At the end of this report are pictures of the 96 carat “Sultans Shield” Zultanite® and the Zultanite® “Shooting Star” motif Jewelry Ensemble valued at over $1.5 million dollars: designed by Stephen Webster of London.

In early 2006 it was my friend Murat, the current mine owner who suggested we come up with a more pleasing gemstone “marketing” name for the gemstone variety of the mineral Diaspore, it had an awful sounding mineral name sounding like a fungus, so in early 2006 he came up with the name after I suggested we call it “Ottominite” after the Ottoman Empire of Turkey and he said how about “Sultanite” after the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire and giving it a Royal kind of sounding name, well it turns out after researching the name there was a mineral called “Sultanate” out there and he said it was too close to that name so instead we just exchange the “S” for a “Z” and Zultanite® was born. In all of the proceeding adds about this new gemstone Zultanite® it refers to the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire of Turkey as the inspiration and dedication for its royal sounding name.

I’ve been involved with this gemstone since the very first time it was brought to my attention into this county way back in the mid 1990’s, from the original Turkish importer, who had been acquiring it from a government owned, but none operating, Bauxite deposit in Turkey and ever since Murat, the current mine owner legally acquired the mining rights to it back in 2005.

Back in 1995, was the year I received an AGTA Spectrum “Cutting Edge” Award for the “Uniquely K Apex Fan” Diaspore I faceted, a 26 carat fan shape shield of this gemstone that was shown at the AGTA Show in Tucson.

My 26 carat “Uniquely K Apex Fan” Diaspore under incandescent light showing the reddish tan color of this AGTA Spectrum Awards winning stone from 1995. (the name Zultanite® was not created as of yet nor was Csarite™ which is a recent New Trade Mark name by the mine owner Murat Akgun in Turkey)

My 26 carat “Uniquely K Apex Fan” Diaspore under incandescent light showing the reddish tan color of this AGTA Spectrum Awards winning stone from 1995. (the name Zultanite® was not created as of yet nor was Csarite™ which is a recent New Trade Mark name by the mine owner Murat Akgun in Turkey)

Then it was only known as Diaspore a “new color changing gemstone from Turkey”. My partner and I at the time, where one of the only few companies marketing this lovely color changing gemstone under our company name Golden Land Trading, since I was one of only a few people faceting this gemstone and I tended to received most of the larger crystals due to my expertise working with this tricky gemstone. We had a full page color add in the 1995 Tucson Gem Show Guide on the right hand side of a page near the beginning of the Guide, we were displaying all of our own stones along with the “New Color Changing Gemstone from Turkey: Diaspore” at the GJX Show across the street from the AGTA Show.

From this point on till the acquisition of the legal mining rights by Murat in early 2005, the gemstone Diaspore had its ups and downs until at one point I lost contact with the former Turkish importer who was getting this fine gemstone mineral crystals out of Turkey. Quite a few years went by and my connection with the original importer had fallen off and I had not heard from him in quite some time. Then in 2004 Murat contacted me about the diaspore deposit and the former importer who I was getting the diaspore from was out of the picture. He contacted me as the person to see since my involvement with the former importer and my faceting expertise on cutting Diaspore was a valuable asset to him.

Murat asked me about continuing to facet the “untrade named” diaspore for him and I said I would be delighted. At the time he was looking for financial backers to help in the expansion and marketing of this gemstone and at that point became partners with a backer from Fort Lauderdale Florida and “Zultanite® Gems LLC” was formed.

The Floridian backer was the person I did most of my cutting for, for Murat and Murat concentrated on the opening up and upgrading of the new mining operation in Turkey along with the promotion of the Zultanite® and getting the gemstone rough to the people involved with faceting it. The Floridian partners concern was financing the marketing here in the USA and promoting the new gemstone by creating the website zultanite.com They did work together on this as Murat would concentrate on foreign distribution and getting commercial cutting involved and creating connections with different trade magazines for the promotion of the new gemstone Zultanite®.

Murat would send the best rough to his partner or to me directly or one of the other cutters involved and I would cut the stones and send them to the partner in Florida and he would pay me for my work. During this time between 2006 and from this point on, the company added several people to its sales force here in the USA and the campaign to promote “Zultanite®” and Zultanite® Gems LLC was on in force, being seen in many magazines and trade publications along with a gemstone tour around the county to promote this new gemstone “Zultanite®” on several home shopping networks.

Very well known jewelry designers were contacted and given stones to work with in the preceding years and Zultanite® and Zultanite® Gems LLC took off in the gemstone trade and jewelry market while Murat kept the mining operation ever expanding.

Since the diaspore was found in veins within a bauxite deposit he started marketing the bauxite and exporting the ore to the aluminum industry to help cover the cost of the expanding operation. During this time I was privileged on working with some of the largest crystals to have come out of the mine and was able to have several of the stones that I cut win AGTA Spectrum “Cutting Edge” awards over the years for Zultanite® Gems LLC.

The first Big Zultanite® stone to come from me became the first “World’s Largest Zultanite®” the 80 carat oval I faceted which won an AGTA award in 2008 under “Phenomenal Gemstones”, this stone is in the Winter of 2009 publication of the GIA Alumni magazine “The Loupe” which was recognizing GIA alumni members that won AGTA Spectrum Awards of which I’m an alumni. Then in 2011 I won another award for an 11 carat modified square princess cut Zultanite® for the company.

The 80 carat Oval that won a AGTA Spectrum Awards “Cutting Edge” award under “Phenomenal Gemstones” at one point it was the worlds largest Zultanite® to come from Zultanite® Gems LLC, this is under incandescent light. (Csarite™ which is a recent New Trade Mark name by the mine owner Murat Akgun in Turkey) the photo was taken by Robert Weldon for Zultanite® Gems LLC at the time.

The 80 carat Oval that won a AGTA Spectrum Awards “Cutting Edge” award under “Phenomenal Gemstones” at one point it was the worlds largest Zultanite® to come from Zultanite® Gems LLC, this is under incandescent light. (Csarite™ which is a recent New Trade Mark name by the mine owner Murat Akgun in Turkey) the photo was taken by Robert Weldon for Zultanite® Gems LLC at the time.

In early 2009 I was contacted by Murat directly and received an exceptional large diaspore crystal, it had recently come out of the mine and I took my time examining the crystal and planned out the potential stones to come from it. After several months I finally got to working on this crystal and was able to get a 96 carat shield shape out of it, I named it the “Sultans Shield” and it became the newly crowned “Worlds Largest Zultanite®”.

Sometime afterwards, after I returned the stone to Murat and quite sometime latter, it along with one matched pair of pear shapes and an large oval were given to Stephen Webster of London for the creation of a jewelry ensemble with the 96 carat Sultans Shield Zultanite® as the main attraction in a “Shooting Star” motif necklace, along with a matched pair of earrings and a fabulous ring in the same motif (you can view them in the link at the end of this report below) of which the Zultanite’s in the ring and earrings where “not” faceted by me but I believe they where stones faceted by Rudi & Ralph Wobito of Canada, who where also involved with many faceted Zultanite® stones coming from them and their very fancy and clever “Snow Flake” cut, a part faceted and carved designed stone resembling a snow flake. This ensemble is valued at over $1.5 million dollars with the 96 carat Sultans Shield Zultanite® coming in at over a cool $1 million dollars just for the stone I faceted, though I did not know at the time it would become so valuable.

Stephen Kotlowski of Uniquely K Custom Gem’s / Phenomenal Facets, was commissioned to cut the world’s largest Zultanite® gem. The 96.20 ct. “Sultans Shield” Kotlowski cut for the mine owner from Turkey and Zultanite® Gems LLC in Fort Lauderdale FL. The jewelry designer Stephen Webster of London just revealed his creation in an exclusive showing in Las Vegas to a select group of people in the trade. Great Job Stephen! For more images and information, check out Phenomenal Facets on Facebook.

Right around this time is when the partnership soured along with other players in this company. This was the beginning of the end of the partners and ownership of Zultanite® Gems LLC by Murat. There was a legal battle and finally a settlement was made with the bulk of the inventory and the Zultanite® trade name and Zultanite® Gems LLC name going to the partner in Florida, since it was legally created and registered here by this partner.

Murat had to give up all rights to the Zultanite® trade name in the settlement leaving Murat out millions of dollars of inventory and having to restructure his business and loosing all of his hard work and money in all of the publications and advertising he had created with the Zultanite® trade name over the years. Since the lawsuit and settlement Murat had to come up with a new name to replace the Zultanite® name and he came up with the newly registered gemstone trade name of “Csarit™”. This all took quite some time to go through and now the two parties are working together, supporting each other’s business.

So this is the story behind this wonderful color changing gemstone and mineral Diaspore and my background on it. Now you know the reason for the different gemstone trade names for “Turkish Color Change Diaspore”. Just recognize it as a “rare” truly outstanding color changing gemstone desired by people and designers all around the world and how it has risen from being a “fungus” sounding named mineral Diaspore, to Zultanite® “A Royal Gemstone” of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire of Turkey and now with the mine owner a new name called Csarite™ pronounced sar-ite, like the Tsar’s of Russia! A Royal Gem indeed!


Watch the video: Πασχάλης: Μου φαίνεται ότι ο Τόνι Σφήνος γελοιοποιεί την εποχή. 28092021. ΕΡΤ (December 2022).

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